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A polyolefin is a polymer produced from a simple olefin (also called an alkene with the general formula CnH2n) as a monomer. For example, polyethylene is the polyolefin produced by polymerizing the olefin ethylene. An equivalent term is polyalkene; this is a more modern term, although polyolefin is still used in the petrochemical industry. Polypropylene is another common polyolefin which is made from the olefin propylene.
Industrial polyolefins 
- Thermoplastic polyolefins: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polymethylpentene (PMP), polybutene-1 (PB-1);
- Polyolefin elastomers (POE): polyisobutylene (PIB), Ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), ethylene propylene diene Monomer (M-class) rubber (EPDM rubber)…
Polyolefin surfaces are not effectively joined together by solvent cementing because they have excellent chemical resistance and are unaffected by common solvents. They can be adhesively bonded after surface treatment (they inherently have very low surface energies and don't wet-out well), and by some superglues (cyanoacrylates) and reactive (meth)acrylate glues. They are extremely inert chemically but exhibit decreased strength at lower and higher temperatures. Thermal welding is a common bonding technique.
A more specific type of olefin is a poly-alpha-olefin (or poly-α-olefin, sometimes abbreviated as PAO), a polymer made by polymerizing an alpha-olefin. An alpha-olefin (or α-olefin) is an alkene where the carbon-carbon double bond starts at the α-carbon atom, i.e. the double bond is between the #1 and #2 carbons in the molecule. Common alpha-olefins used as co-monomers to give a polymer alkyl branching groups are similar to 1-hexene or may be longer (see chemical structure below).
Many poly-alpha-olefins have flexible alkyl branching groups on every other carbon of their polymer backbone chain. These alkyl groups, which can shape themselves in numerous conformations, make it very difficult for the polymer molecules to line themselves up side-by-side in an orderly way. Therefore, many poly-alpha-olefins do not crystallize or solidify easily and are able to remain oily, viscous liquids even at lower temperatures. Low molecular weight poly-alpha-olefins are useful as synthetic lubricants such as synthetic motor oils for vehicles used in a wide temperature range.
Even polyethylenes copolymerized with a small amount of alpha-olefins (such as 1-hexene, 1-octene, or longer) are more flexible than simple straight chain high density polyethylene, which has no branching. The methyl branch groups on a polypropylene polymer are not long enough to make typical commercial polypropylene more flexible than polyethylene.
Polyolefin is used for blown film and heatshrink electrical insulation sleeves for crimped wire terminals, as well as rash guards or under garments for wetsuits. Polyolefin elastomer POE is used as a main ingredient in the molded flexible foam technology such as in the fabrication of self skinned footwear (for example, Crocs shoes), seat cushions, arm rests, spa pillows, etc. Hydrogenated polyalphaolefin (PAO) is used as a radar coolant. Head makes polyolefin tennis racket strings. Polyolefin is also used in pharmaceutical and medical industry for HEPA filter certification--a PAO aerosol is passed through the filters and the air that exits is measured with an aerosol detector. Elastolefin is a fiber used in fabrics.
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