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- Li Linfu, Chancellor of Tang China during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong (712–756) in the latter years, was exhumed and stripped of many of his funerary regalia, before being reburied in a commoner's coffin as punishment for crimes of high treason at the behest of his rival Yang Guozhong for his implication in the An Lushan Rebellion. Xuanzong's successor, Emperor Suzong, considered the idea of a second posthumous execution by re-exhuming Li Linfu and cremating the corpse with the intent of scattering the ashes, but was dissuaded by his adviser.
- Harold I Harefoot, king of the Anglo-Saxons (1035–1040), illegitimate son of Cnut, died in 1040 and his half-brother, Harthacanute, on succeeding him, had his body taken from its tomb and cast in a pen with animals.
- Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, was killed of wounds suffered at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, his corpse was beheaded, castrated and quartered by the knights of King Henry III of England.
- Roger d'Amory (c. 1290 – bef. 14 March 1321/1322), died following the Battle of Burton Bridge, then was posthumously executed for treason by Edward II
- John Wycliffe (1328–1384), was burned as a heretic 45 years after he died.
- Vlad the Impaler (1431–1476), who was beheaded following his assassination.
- Jacopo Bonfadio (1508–1550) was beheaded for sodomy and then his corpse was burned at the stake for heresy.
- Nils Dacke, leader of a 16th-century peasant revolt in southern Sweden.
- In 1600, after the failure of the Gowrie conspiracy the corpses of John, Earl of Gowrie and his brother Alexander Ruthven were hanged and quartered at the Mercat Cross, Edinburgh, their heads were put on spikes at Edinburgh's Old Tolbooth and their limbs upon spikes at various locations around Perth.
- Gilles van Ledenberg, whose embalmed corpse was hanged from a gibbet in 1619, after his conviction of treason in the trial of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt.
- A number of the regicides of Charles I of England had died before the Restoration of King Charles II. Parliament passed an order of attainder for High Treason on the four most prominent deceased regicides: John Bradshaw the court president, Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and Thomas Pride. The bodies were exhumed and three were hanged for a day at Tyburn and then beheaded. The three bodies thrown into pit close to the gallows, while the heads were placed, with Bradshaw's in the middle, at the end of Westminster Hall (the symbolism was lost on no one as that was the building where the trial of Charles I had taken place). The head of the most prominent, the former Lord Protector Cromwell, was finally buried in 1960. See also Oliver Cromwell's head. The body of Pride was not "punished" perhaps because it had decayed too much. Of the regicides still alive then, some were executed and others either fled or were imprisoned. For a full list see list of regicides of Charles I.
- In 1917 the body of Rasputin, the Russian mystic, was exhumed from the ground by a mob and burned with gasoline.
- In 1918 the body of Lavr Kornilov, the Russian general, was exhumed from the ground by a pro-Bolshevik mob, beaten, trampled and burned.
- In 1945 the body of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was lynched, hung (upside down), kicked in the head by passers-by, and shot several times after his execution by a firing squad.
- General Gracia Jacques, a supporter of François Duvalier ("Papa Doc") (1907–1971), Haitian dictator, whose body was exhumed and ritually beaten to 'death' in 1986.
- In 1990 Samuel Doe was overthrown, tortured and executed then his captors dismembered his body and ate him.
Dissection as a punishment in England
Some Christians believed that the resurrection of the dead on judgement day requires that the body be buried whole facing east so that the body could rise facing God. If dismemberment stopped the possibility of the resurrection of an intact body, then a posthumous execution was an effective way of punishing a criminal.
In England Henry VIII granted the annual right to the bodies of four hanged felons. Charles II later increased this to six. Now bodies had to come from somewhere, but the conjoining of anatomy and hanging offenses was very bad news, and the basis of an association which lasted until the first Anatomy act in 1832. Dissection was now a recognised punishment, a fate worse than death to be added to hanging for the worst offenders. The dissections performed on hanged felons were public: indeed part of the punishment was the delivery from hangman to surgeons at the gallows following public execution, and later public exhibition of the open body itself. The punishment replaced the earlier hanging, drawing and quartering, in which the four quarters were exhibited on spikes in various parts of the city, and differed only in that it was performed by medical men, and, incidentally that anatomical knowledge was obtained. This state of affairs was accepted by surgeons because it was, oddly, good for their image to achieve royal patronage and to be linked with the law. ... In 1752 an act was passed allowing dissection of all murderers as an alternative to hanging in chains. This was a grisly fate, the tarred body being suspended in a cage until it fell to pieces. The object of this and dissection was to deny a grave. After the act the number of available bodies increased, and the act itself was pro anatomy in that the execution had to follow smartly upon conviction, and the body conveyed immediately to the surgeons. Dissection was described as 'a further terror and peculiar Mark of Infamy' and 'in no case whatsoever shall the body of any murderer be suffered to be buried'. The rescue, or attempted rescue of the corpse was punishable by transportation for seven years.—Dr D. R. Johnson, Introductory Anatomy.
- Cadaver Synod, in 897, when Pope Stephen VI had the corpse of Pope Formosus disinterred and put on trial.
- Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 218.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Frusher, J. (2010). "Hanging, Drawing and Quartering: the Anatomy of an Execution". Retrieved 2010-06-30.
- Henderson 1897, p. 19.
- Juhala 2004.
- Journal of the House of Commons: volume 8: 1660–1667 (1802), pp. 26–7 House of Commons Attainder predated to 1 January 1649 (It is 1648 in the document because of old style year)
- Bradshaw, Richard Lee (2010), God's Battleaxe, Xlibris Corporation, pp. 379–381, ISBN 9781453583920
- Barbara Yorke (2006), The Conversion of Britain Pearson Education, ISBN 0-582-77292-3, ISBN 978-0-582-77292-2. p. 215
- Fiona Haslam (1996),From Hogarth to Rowlandson: Medicine in Art in Eighteenth-century Britain,Liverpool University Press, ISBN 0-85323-640-2, ISBN 978-0-85323-640-5 p. 280 (Thomas Rowlandson, "The Resurrection or an Internal View of the Museum in W-D M-LL street on the last day", 1782)
- Staff. Resurrection of the Body [dead link], Retrieved 2008-11-17
- Mary Abbott (1996). Life Cycles in England, 1560-1720: Cradle to Grave, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-10842-X, 9780415108423. p. 33
- Dr D.R.Johnson, Introductory Anatomy , Centre for Human Biology, (now renamed Faculty of Biological Sciences, Leeds University), Retrieved 2008-11-17
- Henderson, Thomas Finlayson (1897). "Ruthven, John". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography 50. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 15–20.
- Juhala, Amy L. (2004). "Ruthven, John, third earl of Gowrie (1577/8–1600)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24371. (subscription or UK public library membership required)