Protoporphyrin IX

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Protoporphyrin IX
Protoporphyrin IX.svg
Identifiers
CAS number 553-12-8 YesY
PubChem 4971
ChEBI CHEBI:15430 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL267548
Properties
Molecular formula C34H34N4O4
Molar mass 562.658 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Protoporphyrin IX, in the metabolism of porphyrin, is created by the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase.

Protoporphyrin IX biosynthesis[edit]

Protoporphyrin IX is an important precursor to biologically essential prosthetic groups such as heme, cytochrome c, and chlorophylls. As a result, a number of organisms are able to synthesize this tetrapyrrole from basic precursors such as glycine and succinyl CoA, or glutamate. Despite the wide range of organisms that synthesize protoporphyrin IX the process is largely conserved from bacteria to mammals with a few distinct exceptions in higher plants.[1][2][3]

Protoporphyrin IX Biosynthetic pathway

Heme b biosynthesis[edit]

In heme biosynthesis, the enzyme ferrochelatase converts it into heme b (i.e. Fe-protoporphyrin IX or protoheme IX).

Heme synthesis - note that some reactions occur in the cytoplasm and some in the mitochondrion (yellow)


Chlorophyll biosynthesis[edit]

In chlorophyll biosynthesis, the enzyme magnesium chelatase converts it into Mg-protoporphyrin IX.

See also[edit]

  1. ^ A. R. Battersby, C. J. R. Fookes, G. W. J. Matcham, E. McDonald (1980). "Biosynthesis of the pigments of life: formation of the macrocycle". Nature 285: 17–21. doi:10.1038/285017a0. 
  2. ^ F. J. Leeper (1983). "The biosynthesis of porphyrins, chlorophylls, and vitamin B12". Natural Product Reports 2: 19–47. doi:10.1039/NP9850200019. 
  3. ^ G. Layer, J. Reichelt, D. Jahn (2010). "Structure and function of enzymes in heme biosynthesis". Protein Science 19: 1137–1161. doi:10.1002/pro.405.