Raphe nuclei

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Raphe nucleus)
Jump to: navigation, search
Raphe nuclei
Gray694.png
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive. (Raphe nuclei not labeled, but 'raphe' labeled at left.)
Lower pons horizontal KB.svg
Horizontal cross section of the brainstem at the lower pons. The raphe nucleus is labeled #18 in the middle.
Details
Latin nuclei raphe
Identifiers
MeSH A08.186.211.132.659.632
NeuroLex ID Raphe Nuclei
Dorlands
/Elsevier
n_11/12582773
TA A14.1.04.257
A14.1.04.318
A14.1.05.402
A14.1.05.601
A14.1.06.401
FMA FMA:84017
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The raphe nuclei ("raffe", Greek: ῥαφή = seam[1] ) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem. Their main function is to release serotonin to the rest of the brain.[2] Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are believed to act in these nuclei, as well as at their targets.[3]

Anatomy [edit]

The raphe nuclei are traditionally considered to be the medial portion of the reticular formation, and appear as a ridge of cells in the center and most medial portion of the brain stem.

In order from caudal to rostral, the raphe nuclei are known as the nucleus raphe obscurus, the nucleus raphe magnus, the nucleus raphe pontis, the nucleus raphe pallidus, the median raphe nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, nuclei linearis intermedius and linearis rostralis.[4] Some scientists chose to group the nuclei lineares into one nucleus, the nucleus linearis, shrinking the number of raphe to seven, e.g., NeuroNames makes the following ordering:[5]

Nomenclature[edit]

The Latin names commonly used for most of these nuclei are grammatically and orthographically incorrect. Latin grammar would require to use the genitive case raphes ('of the seam') instead of the nominative case raphe ('seam') in these Latin expressions. The main authority in anatomical names, Terminologia Anatomica uses for example nucleus raphes magnus[6] instead of the grammatically incorrect nucleus raphe magnus. The spelling raphe/raphes however can also be contested as numerous sources[7][8][9] indicate that raphe is an incorrect Latin rendering of the Ancient Greek word ῥαφή as the initial letter rho with rough breathing (spiritus asper) is normally rendered as rh in Latin.[7] The edition of the Nomina Anatomica that was ratified in Jena in 1935 used rhaphe instead of raphe.[10][11]

Projections[edit]

These nuclei interact with almost every pertinent portion of the brain, but only a few of them have specifically independent interaction. These select nuclei are discussed as follows.

Overall, the caudal raphe nuclei, including the nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus raphe pallidus and nucleus raphe obscurus, all project towards the spinal cord and brain stem. The more-rostral nuclei, including the nucleus raphe pontis, nucleus centralis superior (also called median raphe nucleus) and nucleus raphe dorsalis project towards the brain areas of higher function[12]

However, studies also show that numerous areas of the brain control the serotonergic neurons locate in the nucleus raphe dorsalis, including the orbital cortex, cingulate cortex, medial preoptic area, lateral preoptic area, and several areas of the hypothalamus. The connection between these areas, particularly between the nucleus raphe dorsalis and the orbital cortices, is thought to have influences on depression and obsessive compulsive disorder prognosis.[13]

Dopamine and serotonin pathways in the brain

Function[edit]

The raphe nuclei have a vast impact upon the central nervous system. Many of the neurons in the nuclei (but not the majority) are serotonergic; i.e., contain serotonin, a type of monoamine neurotransmitter and are modulated through fibrous pathways in the midbrain.[14]

Projections from the raphe nuclei also terminate in the dorsal horn of spinal gray matter where they regulate the release of enkephalins, which inhibit pain sensation.

The raphe nuclei provide feedback to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), thus contributing in circadian rhythms in animals. The SCN transmits to the raphe nuclei via the dorsomedial hypothalamus nucleus altering serotonin levels for sleep/wake states. The raphe nuclei will then transmit feedback to the SCN about the animal's vigilance and levels of alertness. This reciprocal feedback between the two structures provides an adaptable yet stable basis of circadian rhythms.[15]

The Raphe Nuclei and the Effects of Ghrelin[edit]

More recent studies of the Raphe Nuclei done with rats involve the effects of Ghrelin on the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus. When administered, larger doses of Ghrelin act centrally on the raphe nucleus, hippocampus, and amygdala which causes dramatic increases in food intake, memory retention, and increases in anxiety. The effects of ghrelin on the raphe nucleus as soon as an hour after injection, suggesting rapid changes in the nucleus' structure. Changes also occur after 24 hours suggesting delayed modifications as well.[16]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  2. ^ George J. Siegel, ed. (1999). "Understanding the neuroanatomical organization of serotonergic cells in brain provides insight into the functions of this neurotransmitter". Basic Neurochemistry. Bernard W. Agranoff, Stephen K. Fisher, R. Wayne Albers, Michael D. Uhler (Sixth ed.). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 0-397-51820-X. In 1964, Dahlstrom and Fuxe (discussed in [2]), using the Falck-Hillarp technique of histofluorescence, observed that the majority of serotonergic soma are found in cell body groups, which previously had been designated as the raphe nuclei. 
  3. ^ Briley, M; Moret, C (October 1993). "Neurobiological mechanisms involved in antidepressant therapies". Clin Neuropharmacol 16 (5): 387–400. doi:10.1097/00002826-199310000-00002. PMID 8221701. 
  4. ^ "Fig. 5. The midsagittal section of the brain stem indicating the position of the raphe nuclei" (GIF). 1998. Retrieved 18 April 2006. 
  5. ^ ancil-190 at NeuroNames
  6. ^ Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Terminologia Anatomica. Stuttgart: Thieme
  7. ^ a b Hyrtl, J. (1880). Onomatologia Anatomica. Geschichte und Kritik der anatomischen Sprache der Gegenwart. Wien: Wilhelm Braumüller. K.K. Hof- und Unversitätsbuchhändler.
  8. ^ Foster, F.D. (1891-1893). An illustrated medical dictionary. Being a dictionary of the technical terms used by writers on medicine and the collateral sciences, in the Latin, English, French, and German languages. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
  9. ^ Triepel, H. (1910). Die anatomischen Namen. Ihre Ableitung und Aussprache. Mit einem Anhang: Biographische Notizen.(Dritte Auflage). Wiesbaden: Verlag J.F. Bergmann.
  10. ^ Kopsch, F. (1941). Die Nomina anatomica des Jahres 1895 (B.N.A.) nach der Buchstabenreihe geordnet und gegenübergestellt den Nomina anatomica des Jahres 1935 (I.N.A.) (3. Auflage). Leipzig: Georg Thieme Verlag.
  11. ^ Stieve, H. (1949). Nomina Anatomica. Zusammengestellt von der im Jahre 1923 gewählten Nomenklatur-Kommission, unter Berücksichtigung der Vorschläge der Mitglieder der Anatomischen Gesellschaft, der Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, sowie der American Association of Anatomists, überprüft und durch Beschluß der Anatomischen Gesellschaft auf der Tagung in Jena 1935 endgültig angenommen. (Vierte Auflage). Jena: Verlag Gustav Fischer.
  12. ^ BilZ0r; Erowid (2005). "Figure 4. Diagram of the human brain showing the divergent serotonergic projections of the raphe nuclei to both cortical and subcortical locations throughout the brain." (PNG). The Neuropharmacology of Hallucinogens: a technical overview. Erowid Pharmacology Vaults. Retrieved 18 April 2006. 
  13. ^ C. Peyron; J.M Petit, C. Rampon, M. Jouvet, P.H. Luppi (1997). "Forebrain Afferants to the Rat Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Demonstrated by Retrograde and Anterograde Tracing Methods". Neuroscience 82 (2): 443–468. doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(97)00268-6. 
  14. ^ Efrain C. Azmitia and Menahem Segal (2004). "An Autoradiographic Analysis of the Differential Ascending Projections of the Dorsal and Median Raphe Nuclei in the Rat". The Journal of Comparative Neurology 179 (3): 641–667. doi:10.1002/cne.901790311. 
  15. ^ J.M. Monti, ed. (2008). "Reciprocal connections between the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the midbrain raphe nuclei: A putative role in the circadian control of behavioral states". Serotonin and Sleep: Molecular, Functional and Clinical Aspects. Samüel Deurveilher and Kazue Semba. Birkhäuser Basel. ISBN 978-3-7643-8560-6. 
  16. ^ Valeria P Carlinia, Mariana M Varasa, Andrea B Cragnolinia, Helgi B Schiöthb, Teresa N Scimonellia, Susana R de Barioglio (2004). "Differential Role of the Hippocampus, amygdala, and Dorsal Raphe Nucleus in Regulating Feeding, Memory, and Anxiety-like Behavioral Responses to Ghrelin". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 313 (3): 635–641. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.11.150. 

See also[edit]