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Record collecting is the hobby of collecting sound recordings, usually of music and/or the "spoken word" (i.e. recordings of drama, poetry, historical speeches, significant news broadcasts, speech dialect samplings, etc.), but, in some cases (although mostly on a smaller scale), even of other recorded sounds (e.g., bird calls and/or other sounds of nature; railroad and other mechanized vehicle sounds; urban, rural, forest, and other "soundscapes"; various "sound effects"; etc.). Although the typical focus is on vinyl records, all formats of recorded music can be collected.
Record collecting has been around probably nearly as long as recorded sound. In its earliest years, phonographs and the recordings that were played on them (first wax phonograph cylinders, and later flat shellac discs) were mostly toys for the rich, out of the reach of the middle or lower classes. By the 1920s, improvements in the manufacturing processes, both in players and recordings, allowed prices for the machines to drop. While entertainment options in a middle to upper class home in the 1890s would likely consist of a piano, smaller instruments, and a library of sheet music, by the 1910s and later these options expanded to include a radio and a library of recorded sound.
After the fall of the phonograph cylinder, the record was the uncontested sound medium for decades. The number of available recordings mushroomed and the number of companies pressing records skyrocketed. These were 78–rpm, originally one-sided, then later double-sided, ten-inch shellac discs, with about two to four minutes of recording time on each side.
Growth in the recorded sound industries was stunted by the Great Depression and World War II, when some countries were hamstrung by a dearth of raw materials. By the time World War II ended, the economy of these countries began to grow again. Classical music (which was a large portion of 78–rpm releases) was slowly edged into a minority status by the influx of popular and new music, which was less costly and thus more profitable to record.
The introduction of both the 331⁄3 rpm, 12-inch LP record and the 45–rpm, 7-inch record, coming into the market in 1948/1949, provided advances in both storage and quality. These records featured vinyl (polyvinyl chloride or polystyrene), replacing the previous shellac materials. Further groups of small labels came into existence with the dawning of the rock and roll era in the early-to-middle 1950s, and the growth of a market among post-war teenagers with disposable income to spend on 45–rpm singles. Rock and roll was much less costly and more profitable to produce than the big band jazz and professional singer/song-craftsman music that it replaced in popularity.
In the United Kingdom, rare 78–rpms were traded, usually American rock and roll, such as Little Richard and Elvis Presley. Labels such as London-American (now London Records), RCA and Capitol were priced at a premium. One of the earliest UK record collectors was Mike Adams, who was first known for trading in 1958 on Merseyside. He later became a DJ on the BBC and broadcasted on collecting records for many years. He wrote several books on collecting including Apple Beatle Collectables. In the UK, labels considered collectible, such as Atlantic Records, Stateside, Motown, and Parlophone (EMI), turned into mainstream major record labels later on in the 1960s.
The record collecting hobby probably did not take shape as such until the 1960s. With the folk music boom in the late 1950s to early 1960s, there was suddenly a demand for archival material. Record collectors fanned out in some countries, searching small towns, dusty barns and mountain cabins for older discs. Initially, the most-desired items were pre-World War II shellac discs containing "race records" (that is, blues, country blues and hillbilly music), the precursors to then-current rock and roll and country styles. Later generations of record collectors found their passion in digging up obscure 45s in the genre of doo-wop, or LPs from the late 1960s "garage rock" and "psychedelic" genres.
The pop music scene changed forever in January 1964 with the arrival of The Beatles in the United States. In their wake, thousands of musical bands inspired by their fresh, lively take on rock music with a sharp British sensibility, picked up guitars, and many released records. Many of these acolytes released 45–rpm records in small batches to sell at local concerts and to their friends and families. Due to their relatively small pressings, these obscure local records became highly prized and valuable.
One of the "collector's items" with the most notoriety in record collecting is not a record at all, but merely an album cover. The Beatles themselves accidentally contributed what is probably one of the most well-known and valuable "collector's pieces" of the rock and roll era: "The Butcher Cover". This is an informal title for an album cover for the album Yesterday and Today. Until 1967, the Beatles' LP releases in the UK were substantially different from their LP releases in the USA. These American albums were shorter, had different songs, album titles and artwork.
Another Holy Grail for some collectors is Bob Dylan's The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan (1963 pressing that has four songs that were deleted from subsequent pressings), known to fetch up to $35,000 in stereo and $16,500 in mono in excellent condition.
One collectible record format is known as a test pressing. Test pressings are exactly what the name implies; 5-10 copies of a record pressed for the purpose of checking the mix or levels on a record, or to ensure that the die is cutting properly. Though usually meant for the band, producer, pressing plant, or record label to keep as reference, they are often placed in special packaging (such as a photocopy of the real record sleeve) and given out to friends or devoted fans.
First pressings of original commercial releases usually have higher values than later pressings. 45s with “picture sleeves” are often particularly valuable. Original editions of LPs and later 12-inch singles and Compact Discs often had inserts and other features not on subsequents editions. These are usually what the records collectors want and will pay the most for. Subsequent pressings were made, for instance, after the records were off the charts and Top 40 radio. These records most often have the same label and number but can be identified by dealers and collectors because of differences from the 1st pressings in the cover, colour of the label, matrix numbers etc. These pressings of popular records often have no more value than the original purchase price.
Promos, Reissues and Bootlegs 
Promotional or "promo" records were free records sent to radio or television stations (and others) to announce a new release that would be coming soon from the record company. They were identified by the label (often plain white in colour) and were marked “Promotional”, “Audition” or "Demonstration". Most promo labels also state “Not for Sale.” Promo copies of best selling records generally have a slightly lower value than the 1st pressing originals. Occasionally promo copies were pressed for records that were never released. Obviously these records are extremely rare and obtain a very high value for the most sought-after artists or music.
“Reissues” of popular records usually have a different label and number than the original release and also have no more value than the original purchase price.
“Bootlegs” are illegitimate releases. Bootlegs vary in value. They come in several categories. LPs/12"/CDs often feature tracks not commercially released (stolen) or recorded at live concerts. 45s include re-releases of rare or valuable 45s. Some bootleg 45s are exact copies of rare records with the original label graphics and numbers - these are known in the industry as “counterfeits.”
In the 1970s, the record collecting hobby really took off with the establishment of record collecting publications such as Goldmine, Discoveries, and Stormy Weather, and in the UK, Record Collector. Price guide books were published, codifying exactly how much certain "rare items" were supposed to be worth. The "grading" of records based upon condition became more standardized across the hobby with the publication of these price guides.
With the introduction of the compact disc in the middle 1980s, there began a stratification in the hobby; commonly found vinyl specimens that had been pressed in the hundreds of thousands or even millions of copies became relatively worthless, while the rarest of specimens became ever more valuable. These rare items included 45–rpm discs in the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, doo wop, garage rock, progressive rock, and psychedelic rock. Other rare and highly valued items include pieces from highly collectible artists such as The Beatles, Elvis Presley, U2, Michael Jackson, Madonna, The Cure, The Rolling Stones, or James Brown. Some are pressings from nations where they were pressed in very small quantities (such as the Sex Pistols' South African release of "God Save The Queen").
Even in the 21st century, as music fans have often opted for digital downloads over physical releases (and indeed started to collect these in the same way as vinyl), certain contemporary bands have a following of record collectors. This is prominent for instance in the punk and alternative genres. For example, the special edition of NOFX's 1999 release, The Decline, on transparent vinyl has already reached prices of $1500. Due to the DIY ethic and constrained budget of many punk bands and labels, releases by lesser-known bands tend to be in limited edition. Specific pressing runs of records are sometimes printed on different colored vinyl, have new or different songs, contain spelling or mixing errors, or may be in lower quantity than other pressings. All such factors increase a specific record's collectibility. For instance, in 1988, New York hardcore band Judge attempted to record their debut Bringin' It Down at Chung King Studios. The bad experience and low quality result left the band so disappointed that they scrapped the session and re-recorded the LP elsewhere. The older sessions, however, were pressed onto 110 copies of white vinyl entitled Chung King Can Suck It! and sent to fans who had pre-ordered Bringin It Down to reward them for their patience, as re-recording caused a major delay in the release. Copies of the record have been sold for up to $1,700 on sites like eBay.
Other music genres also have fervent adherents. For instance, fans of folk rock, psychedelia and other genres have become ever more interested in original short-run vinyl private pressings. Even when these have been reissued, the originals can continue to attract high prices. The first wave of classical collectors concentrated on early stereo orchestral recordings on labels such as the British Decca and EMI, and the American Mercury Records Living Presence series and RCA Records Living Stereo series. Some of these records still sell at auction for hundreds of dollars. However, the focus of the top classical collectors has now shifted to earlier material, and rare European monos from the 1950s by top artists have become highly sought after. The Far Eastern collectors who dominate this market tend to prefer chamber music, and solo violin and cello. Others still focus on antique 78s.
As of 2011 many pressing plants have been reactivated and new releases in vinyl are appearing on an increasing basis. The volume of product seems to confirm continuing niche interest in the format as formats such as CDs and cassette tapes fail to compete with digital downloads.
Intended audience 
The intended audience of a collection may include
- the collector himself
- family and friends
- the general public
or a combination thereof.
Scope of collection 
The scope of a collection may include:
- particular genres (or sub-genres), e.g. Classical, Soul, Funk, Country Music, Go-go, Modern Jazz, Detroit Techno, Broken Beat, Elevator Music, early stereo etc.
- particular artists (or producers, remixer, conductor, or other performer), e.g. Louis Armstrong, Elvis Presley, The Beatles, Stevie Wonder, Sir Simon Rattle, Larry Levan, Berry Gordy, James Brown etc.
- particular recording labels (or sublabels), e.g. His Master's Voice, Motown, Tamla, Philadelphia International Records, Salsoul, Apple Records, Audio Fidelity Records etc.
- particular periods (or music scenes), e.g. 1920s, 1960s and 1970s, those played at The Loft, Northern Soul, Philadelphia soul etc.
- particular formats, e.g. 78s, 7"s, LPs, Mono, Vinyl, 8-track cartridges, Reel-to-reel, Cassettes, CDs, Digital downloads etc.
or combinations thereof.
Notable record collectors 
- Ray Avery, whose 63,000+ piece jazz record collection now resides with the University of California, Los Angeles.
- Joe Bussard, owner of over 25,000 1920s and 1930s American blues, gospel, folk etc. records.
- Pat Conte, New York area collector of 78s from around the world and host of The Secret Museum of the Air on WFMU-FM.
- British club DJ Carl Cox has a collection of 120,000 items.
- Josh Davis aka DJ Shadow, known for the album Endtroducing..... which was comprised entirely from samples. Owns over 60,000 records.
- Hip Hop artist Dr. Dre sold his 80,000 piece collection.
- Dave Freeman, collector of early country and rural string band records from the 1920s and 1930s, who compiled Echoes of the Ozarks, Mountain Songs, and other compilation albums on his County Records label.
- Record Collector 365 (August 2009) reported US collector Bob George as having an estimated three million vinyl records in his collection.
- Bob Harris (radio), BBC Radio 2 Presenter.
- Jazzy Jay claims 400,000-600,000 items: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdjfbYGgHQU
- The collection of Andy Kershaw, former BBC Radio 1 DJ, weighed seven tons at one point.
- Paul Mawhinney, founder of music store and record archive Record-Rama, who is known for probably having the world's biggest record collection across contemporary music genres, more than three million items, larger than the Library of Congress collection.
- Thurston Moore & Byron Coley, collectors of noise, free jazz, and avant-garde jazz. Coley has upwards of 30,000 items in his collection.
- Scott Neuman, owner of Forever Vinyl - Record Search Service and Music Appraisal Service, one of the first online record stores.
- Jerry Osborne, publisher of the first Record Price Guide in early 1976; the first of over 150 music and entertainment publications for his company, Osborne Enterprises Publishing.
- Alex Paterson from The Orb claimed in Record Collector magazine in 2009 to own 50,000 records and 10,000 CDs.
- John Peel, Radio 1 DJ, renowned for his barns containing hundreds of thousands of records across genres.
- Gilles Peterson, club and BBC Radio 1 DJ. Major jazz, funk, soul, and modern dancefloor music collector who had to move out of his flat to leave space for his collection.
- Tony Prince, ex Radio Luxembourg presenter and owner of DMC International.
- Mike Read, another former Radio 1 DJ, put his 120,000 vinyl records up for sale in 2009.
- Pete Rock claims to have 90-100,000 records: http://www.youtube.com/watch?annotation_id=annotation_654818&feature=iv&src_vid=VyEuLkvukkU&v=wEVB7KWLgsE
- Greg Shaw, creator of the Pebbles series, Who Put The Bomp magazine, and Bomp! Records.
- Val Shively is said to have 4 million 45s in his Philadelphia shop.
- Harry Smith, compiler of the Anthology of American Folk Music.
- Joel Whitburn, author of the Record Research series of books cataloguing Billboard Magazine chart data. Whitburn's collection contains a copy of almost every record to chart on Billboard.
- Frederick P. Williams, collector, researcher, instrumentalist, author, and speaker of/about band, wind, and percussion music, Philadelphia area.
Most valuable records 
The following is an attempt to list some of the most valuable recordings. Data is sourced from Record Collector magazine, eBay, Popsike, the Jerry Osborne Record Price Guides, and other sources.
- The Quarrymen – "That'll Be the Day"/"In Spite of All the Danger" (UK 78–rpm, acetate in plain sleeve, 1958). Only one copy made. The one existing copy is currently owned by Paul McCartney and has never been offered for sale since he bought it. Record Collector magazine listed the guide price at £200,000 in issue 408 (December 2012). McCartney had some "reissues" pressed in 1981 on UK 10” 78 RPM and 7” 45 RPM, in reproduction Parlophone sleeves, 25 copies of each, these are estimated to be worth upwards of £10,000 each (Record Collector 382).
- A fully signed copy of The Beatles' "Sgt Pepper" LP sold for $290,500 (£190,000) in 2013 (Heritage Auctions, Record Collector 414). Normal copies of records involving famous people can often rocket in price when autographed, as for example in the case of a copy of John Lennon & Yoko Ono – Double Fantasy (Geffen US Album, 1980), autographed by Lennon five hours before his murder. This sold in 1999 for $150,000.
- Original master tapes of historic recordings can fetch very high prices at auction. A tape of The Quarrymen performing live sold for £78,500 (Dogget & Hodgson, Christie's Rock And Pop Memorabilia, 2003). Other high prices for obscure Beatles-related tapes include $30,000 at Bonham's in 2008 for a recording of John Lennon singing at a party in 1973 (Record Collector 360, March 2009).
- The earliest known tape of Mick Jagger and Keith Richards rehearsing fetched £50,250 at auction (Dogget & Hodgson).
- Record Collector 353 (September 2008) reported tapes of The Jimi Hendrix Experience's 1968 Woburn Music Festival performance selling for £48,050 at Christie's.
- The Silver Beatles Decca audition tape fetched £35,000 at auction (The Telegraph, 4 December 2012).
- The Beatles - "Love Me Do" (EMI) one-sided acetate, the only unedited version with count-in - estimated at $50,000-$100,000 in Record Collector 404 (August 2012).
- The Beatles – Yesterday and Today (Capitol, US Album in ‘butcher’ sleeve, 1966). $47,500 for mint "first state" stereo copies. Other pressings/states are also available, in both mono and stereo with prices ranging from $150 to $10,000.
- An acetate version of The Beatles' "Please Please Me" album from the US on Vee-Jay (1963) had a £30,000+ offer refused on it (Record Collector 342, November 2007).
- Frank Wilson – "Do I Love You (Indeed I Do)" (SOUL#35019, US 7” 45–rpm in plain sleeve, 1966). One of two known copies of this Northern soul classic fetched over £25,000 (approx. $37,000) in May 2009. Northern soul is a highly collectible area, based around obscure American soul singles.
- A copy of The Beatles' "Please Please Me" LP (the Parlophone stereo version with the black and gold label, which regularly sells for over £1,000) sold in 2009 for £22,322 (Record Collector 368, November 2009).
- Bob Dylan – The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan (CBS, US album, stereo 1963, featuring 4 tracks deleted from subsequent releases), $35,000.
- Long Cleve Reed & Little Harvey Hull – "Original Stack O’Lee Blues" (Black Patti, US 78–rpm in plain sleeve, 1927). $30,000 offered to Joe Bussard.
- Jean Michel Jarre - "Music for Supermarkets" (Disques Dreyfus, France, FDM 18113), Only one copy of this LP exists. It is auctioned for 36,000FR (approx. $14,000 at the time, or about $30,000 in 2010) in Paris in 1983.
- The Beatles – The Beatles (Parlophone UK album, 1968, numbered below 000010, black inner with poster and four colour prints), $18,000. A copy numbered 000005 sold on eBay for £19,200 British pounds sterling (over US$27,000).
- Velvet Underground & Nico – The Velvet Underground & Nico (US Album acetate, in plain sleeve, 1966 with alternate versions of tracks from official release). Estimate $40,000+. Sold on eBay, December 9, 2006, for $155,401. However bids were fake and record was relisted. Final selling price was $25,200.
- John Lennon & Yoko Ono – Wedding Album - USA Capitol LP acetate with handwritten sleeve notes, 1969 and offered for $25,000 at Forevervinyl.com. Recent find and possibly the only acetate available of this record.
- Elvis Presley – "Stay Away, Joe" (US, RCA Victor UNRM-9408, 1967). Single-sided promotional album of which only one well-publicized copy is known to exist, and it came directly from Presley's personal collection. Valued at $25,000+.
- The Five Sharps – "Stormy Weather" (US, Jubilee 5104, 78 RPM, 1953). $25,000 offered to David Hall of Good Rockin' Tonight.
- The Hornets – "I Can't Believe" (US, States 127, 78–rpm, 1953). $25,000.
- Billy Ward & His Dominoes (Federal, 295-94, US 10” album, 1954), sold at Good Rockin' Tonight's August 4–5, 1999 'Ultra Rarities' auction for $24,200.
- Elvis Presley's "Good Luck Charm" 33rpm single has been valued at $24,000.
- A Sex Pistols acetate of "God Save The Queen" sold for £14,600.
- Judy Garland – Two unreleased acetates from March 1935, $22,500 bid for the pair, failed to meet reserve.
- Sex Pistols – "God Save the Queen" (UK A&M 7” 45–rpm with mailer, 1977). $22,000.
- Bach, Cello Suites, Andre Levy, French Lumen 3.447-449, signed by Levy on all three records, $20,000.
- Blind Joe Reynolds – "99 Blues" (Paramount 12983, 78 RPM, 1930), $20,000.
- A copy of The Beatles' "My Bonnie" (Decca 31382) sold for $18,750 (Heritage Auctions, Record Collector 414).
- A coloured-vinyl copy of "Lafayette Blues" by The White Stripes, on Italy Records, with a hand-painted sleve, signed, with letters of authentication, sold in 2010 for $18,000 (Record Collector 384, January 2011).
- The Beatles "Love Me Do" Demo record (with Parlophone generic sleeve) sold April 2012 for £12,100 
Resources about record collecting 
- Moses, Julian Morton. The Record Collector's Guide [to] American-[Issued Classical Music] Celebrity Discs. New York: Concert Bureau, College of the City of New York, [ca. 1960].
- Overton, C. David. The Gramophone Record Library. London: Grafton & Co., 1951. 123 p. N.B.: This book is aimed at sound recordings collections in libraries, but much of the advice may be of some use to the private collector.
- Roach, Helen. Spoken Records. 3rd ed. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1970.
- Williams, Frederick P. Ideas on Beginning a 78's [i.e. flat sound discs that spin at or about 78 rpm] Record Collection. Philadelphia, Penn.: Collector's Records, 1973.
- Silke, John, 'Record Collecting in the Digital Age' 2012.
Documentary films 
- "Today's Hottest Collectibles at Affordable Prices". Bottomlinesecrets.com. 2003-09-01. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- , Popsike.com, accessed 24-12-2011
- , Popsike.com, accessed 29-12-2011
- , Popsike.com, accessed 29-12-2011
- , http://www.classicrecords.co.uk, accessed 29-12-2011
- , http://www.holdridgerecords.com/, accessed 29-12-2011
- UCLA Music Library Ucla.edu, accessed 2011-12-29
-  http://emusician.com, accessed 2011-12-29
-  http://www.hiphopdx.com, accessed 2011-12-29
-  http://www.scotsman.com, accessed 2011-12-29
- Michaels, Sean (19 February 2008). "World's greatest music collection goes on sale". The Guardian (The Guardian). ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
-  http://www.vice.com, accessed 2011-12-29
-  http://dancemusic.about.com, accessed 2011-12-29
-  http://www.dailymail.co.uk, accessed 2011-12-29
- Summerlin, Barry (2008-02-05). "The World of Rare Records: Lennon and McCartney's First Recording". Luxist.com. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- [dead link]
- Scrap that recording, it'll become an instant classic, Guardian Unlimited, accessed 2007-07-21
-  the soulsurvivor.co.uk, accessed 2007-21-07
- Desperate Man Blues bubbaguita.com, accessed 2007-07-21
- Popsike.com Most valuable records, Popsike.com, accessed 2007-07-21
- "Forever Vinyl Record Store". Forever Vinyl. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- Jerry Osborne picks valuable records, Spirit magazine, accessed 2007-07-21
-  Howstuffworks.com, accessed 2012-03-01
- Ultimate Doo-Wop record Doo-Wop Society of Southern California, accessed 2007-07-21
- Good Rockin' Tonight Good Rockin' Tonight
-  Howstuffworks.com, accessed 2012-03-01
-  http://www.popsike.com, accessed 2012-03-01
- Early Garland recordings fail to sell USA today, accessed 2007-21-07
- eBay item number 230187288018, sold on November 2, 2007. Will probably appear in Popsike soon.
-  EBay item number 110863440934, sold on April 27, 2012.