|Manufacturer||Brian May, Harold May|
|Neck joint||Straight through/bolt-on|
|Body||Oak, blockboard with mahogany veneer|
|Bridge||Custom made with separate string adjustment|
|Pickup(s)||3 modified Burns Tri-Sonic (originally homemade pickups)|
The Red Special is an electric guitar owned by Queen's lead guitarist Brian May and custom-built by him and his father, Harold. The Red Special is also sometimes named in reviews as the Fireplace or the Old Lady, both nicknames used by May when referring to the guitar. A guitar that would define Brian's signature style, it was purposely designed to feedback  after he saw Jeff Beck live playing his guitar in front of the amp and getting different sounds just by moving the guitar. He wanted an instrument that was going to be alive and interact with him and the air around him. He has used it on Queen albums and in live performances since the band's advent in the early 1970s. The name Red Special came from the reddish-brown colour the guitar attained after being stained and painted with numerous layers of Rustins' plastic coating. The name Fireplace is a reference to the fact that the wood used to make the neck came from an 18th-century fireplace mantel.
Unlike the primary instruments of most musicians, the original Red Special was built by May along with his father. They began to work on the guitar in August 1963. The neck was constructed from wood from an 18th-century fireplace mantel that a friend of the family was about to throw away. The neck was hand-shaped into the desired form; this was difficult because of the age and quality of the wood. According to May, there are two wormholes in the neck of the guitar.
The neck was finished with a 24-fret oak fingerboard. Each of the position inlays was hand shaped from a mother-of-pearl button. May decided to position them in a personal way: two dots at the 7th and 19th fret and three at the 12th and 24th.
The body was made from oak from an old table, blockboard (strips of softwood sandwiched between two plywood skins  ) and mahogany veneer; the final result was technically a semi-acoustic guitar-the central block is glued to the sides and covered with two mahogany sheets to give it the appearance of a solid-body guitar. The guitar was originally planned to have f-holes but this was never done. White shelf edging was then applied as binding. It was then completed with three pickups and a custom-made bridge. May purchased a set of Burns Tri-Sonic pickups but re-wound them with reverse wound/reverse polarity and "potted" the coils with Araldite epoxy to reduce microphonics. He originally wound his own pickups, as he had for his first guitar, but he did not like the resulting sound because of the polarity of these pickups: alternating North-South instead of all North.
The tremolo system is made from an old hardened-steel knife-edge shaped into a V and two motorbike valve springs to counter the string tension. The tension of the springs is adjustable by screwing the bolts, which run through the middle of the springs, in or out via two small access holes next to the rear strap button. To reduce friction, the bridge was completed with rollers to allow the strings to return perfectly in tune after using the tremolo arm (the arm itself was from a bicycle saddlebag holder with a plastic knitting needle tip). For the same reason, at the other end of the neck the strings pass over a zero fret and through a bakelite string guide.
Originally the guitar had a built in distortion circuit, adapted from a mid-1960s Vox distortion effects unit. The switch for this was in front of the phase switches. May soon discovered that he preferred the sound of a Vox AC30 distorting at full power, so the circuit was removed. The switch hole is now covered by a mother-of-pearl star inlay, but was originally covered by insulation tape.
May still uses the original but he has been using replicas in some performances since his own company (Brian May Guitars) builds this instrument. Two notable occasions on which the original guitar was not used is in the videos "We Will Rock You", and "Spread Your Wings", using his John Birch made Red Special copy which differs from the original in its all maple construction and natural maple colour, since he did not want to expose the Red Special to snow. The Birch was also used live as a back up for the Red Special until being destroyed by May. He also opted out of using the Red Special for the "Play the Game" video, using a knock-off guitar based on a Fender Stratocaster since at one point in the video, Queen singer Freddie Mercury would snatch the guitar from him and "throw" it back to him (also the reason he used a cheap Satellite-badged copy instead of a real Strat). Another video that did not feature the Red Special was "Princes of the Universe", where May used a white Washburn RR11V (for reasons unknown, and this guitar is often mistaken for a Jackson Randy Rhoads). He also recorded the original of "Crazy Little Thing Called Love" on Queen drummer Roger Taylor's Fender Esquire but performed the accompanying video and live performances of the song until 1992 with a Fender Telecaster.
The first official copy of the Red Special was made by UK luthier John Birch and was used as a back up for live use until destroyed by May. The Birch was used in the music videos for "We Will Rock You" and "Spread Your Wings". The guitar differs from the original in its all-maple construction and natural finish. After destruction May sent the guitar to American luthier John Page, who kept the remains for over 20 years before sending them back to May. May then had the guitar restored by Andrew Guyton and still owns it.
Other official replicas of the "Red Special" guitar have been manufactured in varying numbers and in multiple models (i.e. a higher-end full-featured model, and a lower-cost one lacking some of the intricacies of the former) several times during the 1980s and '90s, most often by the Guild Guitar Company from 1983-85 and again from 1993-95 and by Burns Guitars from 2001 (mass-produced models made in Korea). The Burns model, produced with guidance from May, was awarded "Best Electric Guitar of the Year 2001" by Guitarist Magazine. Currently two separate companies manufacture "Red Special" models, Brian May Guitars (taking over manufacture from Burns) and KZ GuitarWorks (replica-quality, hand-made in Japan by master luthier Kazutaka Ijuin). Dillion Guitars (built in Korea) also makes unofficial "Tribute Guitars", in two models. A second unofficial manufacturer, RS Guitars (hand-built in Arizona, US), discontinued production of their models in January 2011, partially due to the company owner feeling upset after a meeting with May.
The Brian May Guitars version differ from the Burns original in a few points; for example, the tremolo was now a two-point synchronized tremolo with rear access plate. These models also feature a half moon scratch plate behind the bridge to emulate the original. The switches were also changed from black to white to match May's guitar. They still use the Burns Tri-Sonic pickups. 24 guitars were made in a rare baby blue color with a pearloid pickguard and gold hardware. The guitars come in Antique Cherry [a similar color to that of the Red Special], White and 3-Tone Sunburst with chrome hardware. They also have Honey Sunburst, Black and Gold with gold hardware.
Greg Fryer, an Australian guitar luthier, produced three copies of the Red Special in 1996/97 with permission from May, who allowed Fryer to x-ray the body for information on the internal cavities in the body, taking exhaustive body measurements for CAD/CAM reproduction. Fryer named his three replicas John, Paul and George Burns (after two members of The Beatles and the famous American comedian). May has two of these guitars, John and George Burns, while Fryer kept Paul. While the woods used in John and Paul are more faithful to the original, George Burns was built with New Guinea rosewood for a "more aggressive edge" tonally. John is May's main back up Red Special, and is tuned to standard. When May plays George Burns live, he tunes it to Drop D tuning, to play "Fat Bottomed Girls", and occasionally "Another One Bites the Dust".
In 2004, Andrew Guyton, a guitar luthier from East Anglia in the UK, manufactured 50 copies of the Red Special: 40 in red to celebrate the 40th Anniversary of the guitar, and ten in green, as he had previously seen a Guild copy available in green and liked it. May has recently had another Red Special copy made with a scalloped fretboard made by Guyton. Guyton also restored the smashed remains of the John Birch Red Special copy.
In 2006 Brian May Guitars introduced a "Mini May" guitar, based on a scaled down Red Special (even including 24 frets but no zero fret) featuring a single pickup, no switches and a maple neck.
An acoustic guitar, featuring a 24-fret neck and the body outline of the Red Special went into production during 2007. This model is named the "Rhapsody", ostensibly after the Queen song "Bohemian Rhapsody".
A bass guitar called the Bri-Bass was announced on May's website and is available. It looks like his normal guitar but with four bass strings.
The Guild models of the early 1990s featured three major configurations. Of the three, the "Signature" model was closest to May's guitar, though it was made of mahogany (body and neck) and ebony (fingerboard) and sported Trisonic-styled "Brian May" pickups made by Seymour Duncan and hardware (including the unique bridge) from Schaller. The "Special" model featured a stop-tailpiece rather than a vibrato, the middle pickup was moved back next to the bridge pickup for a humbucking look, and the back of the guitar had no binding. The "Standard" model featured a more common Strat-style 5-way pickup selector switch, a longer scale neck, and a deeper headstock angle. Andrew Guyton made May a double neck version, which has never been a production model.
After viewing the replicas and taking note of the wear-and-tear the "Red Special" had gone through during nearly 30 years of constant touring, May had Fryer restore the original Red Special in 1998 using as much original and time-period specific material as possible. Damaged veneer on the back of the guitar was removed and new pieces scarfed in. The binding was removed and various nicks and dents in the top were repaired. Fryer re-finished the neck and body in the original Rustin's Plastic coating used in the creation over the existing finish, and fingerboard wear was repaired and dot-markers replaced. The original electrics were also re-wired and overhauled, and cosmetic work such as wear and holes in access panels, pickup covers (worn by May's use of a sixpence as opposed to a standard pick) and the front scratchplate were filled in.
At the end of the Queen + Paul Rodgers tour in 2005, May had several revisions made to his original Red Special, including having the zero fret replaced for the first time (this was judged not to be needed at the time of the 1998 restoration) and making a larger opening for a new jack. Despite all of this work, the original frets (other than the zero fret) have never been replaced.
- Series wiring
- The pickups are wired in series rather than the more usual parallel configuration. The output is also added together when wired in series meaning that with all 3 pickups turned on the output is tripled.
- On/Off switches
- Each pickup has its own dedicated on/off switch. This allows for the additional pickup combinations of "all 3 on" and "neck and bridge on", combinations not commonly available on three pickup guitars.
- Phase switches
- Each pickup has a phase switch which reverses the pickup wiring, therefore reversing the phase of the signal from the pickup. This means that when more than one pickup is active and one has the phase reversed, the resultant tone is what remains after the signal common to the two pickups is canceled out, and only the differences from pickup position remain.
- The position of volume and tone controls is transposed compared to most guitars with the tone being nearest the pickups and the volume furthest away.
- The tremolo is unique and was designed by May and his father. The tremolo system is known as a knife-edge tremolo as it features a knife-edge. The tremolo rocks on the knife-edge which is linked to a couple of motorbike valve springs in the guitar, when the tremolo arm is pushed down the springs are compressed so the pitch of the note drops (just like in any tremolo) and then when the arm is raised back up the note returns with extreme accuracy to pitch. The tremolo-arm itself was made from a saddle bag carrier from an old bicycle and the arm tip is off a knitting needle from his mother.
- Oak from an old table and blockboard (with a mahogany veneer), semi-solid body
- Depth: 39 mm
- Bolt-On, one large bolt which sits beneath the fingerboard and goes through a hole in the body then a nut is then attached; it is also screwed down by two small wood screws at the tenon end which ends just before the bridge pickup. The Greg Fryer, Burns/Brian May Guitars, Guild, John Birch and Greco copies feature a Set Neck.
- Mahogany from an 18th century fireplace
- Neck Pitch: 2°
- Headstock Angle: 4°
- Width at nut: 47 mm
- Width at 12th fret: 51 mm
- Depth at 1st fret: 25 mm
- Depth at 12th fret: 27 mm
- Though utilizing a 24-fret fingerboard, the scale length of the Red Special is a short 24" (609.6 mm); compared to the Gibson standard of 24.75" (628.65 mm) and Fender's common 25.5" (647.7 mm) scale lengths, this creates a looser feel for the strings, which is conducive to May's extensive use of string bending and his wide vibrato.
- Black-painted oak
- Radius: 7.25"
- Scale length: 610 mm
- Number of frets: 24
- Fret gauge: 24 x 1.2
- Inlays: 3°, 5°, 9°, 15°, 17°, 21° (one dot), 7° and 19° (two dots), 12° and 24° (three dots)
- "Zero" fret with Bakelite string guide
- String spacing at nut: 41 mm
- String spacing at bridge: 49 mm
- Strings used - Optima Gold Brian May Custom Gauge - .009 .011 .016 .024 .032 .042 supplied by A Strings
May likes to use light strings, he used to use Rotosound strings gauge 8-38 but later decided to use Optima (then Maxima) gold strings of gauge 9-42, which he still uses to this day. He also uses light strings on other guitars.
- "The Red Special Story". "Brian May Guitars - The Official web site". Retrieved 2009-12-28.
- Hey, what's that sound: Homemade guitars The Guardian. Retrieved August 17, 2011
- Brian May Interview The Music Biz (1992). Retrieved August 17, 2011
- Songwriters Hall of Fame - Brian May Biography Songwriters Hall of Fame. Retrieved August 17, 2011
- "His Guitars". "Tornado's Page". Retrieved 2007-05-31.
- Queen - "Princes of the Universe" music video
- Blackett, Matt. "Renaissance Man." Guitar Player Magazine Jan. 2008: 92. Print.
- Gjörde, Per (2001). Pearls and Crazy Diamonds. Göteborg, Sweden: Addit Information AB. pp. 62–63.
- "RS Guitars website". Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Greg Fryer's Red Special Replicas". "Guitarist magazine via Brian May World web site". Retrieved 2011-01-18.
- Guyton Red Special Guitars Brian May Central. Retrieved August 17, 2011
- Guitarist: "Brian May on Guitar" on YouTube.
http://www.redspecial-library.co.uk/ - Information and Help site for people who build their own Red Special guitars.