A royal yacht is a ship used by a monarch or a royal family. If the monarch is an emperor the proper term is imperial yacht. Most of them are financed by the government of the country of which the monarch is head. The royal yacht is most often manned by personnel from the navy and used by the monarch and his/her family on both private and official travels.
Types of vessels used
Some royal yachts have been/are small vessels only used for short trips on rivers or in calm waters, but others have been/are large seaworthy ships.
Depending on how the term is defined royal yachts date back to the days of antiquity with royal barges on the Nile in ancient Egypt.
Later the Vikings produced royal vessels. They followed the pattern of longships although highly decorated and fitted with purple sails (purple sails remained standard for royal vessels the next 400 years).
In England, Henry V sold off the Royal Yachts to clear the Crown's debts. The next royal vessels in England were built in the Tudor period with Henry VIII using a vessel in 1520 that was depicted as having cloth of gold sails. James I had the disdain a ship in miniature (she was later recorded as being able to carry about 30 tons) built for his son Prince Henry. The disdain was significant in that she allowed for pleasure cruising and as a result can be seen as an early move away from Royal ships as warships.
The first ships to unquestionably qualify as royal yachts were those owned by Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland. The first was gift from the Dutch but later yachts were commissioned and built in England. This established a tradition of royal yachts in Britain that was later copied by other royal families of Europe. Through the 19th century royal yachts got larger as they became a symbol of national wealth. World War I brought this trend to an end and the royal families that survived found it harder to justify the cost with the result that there are only three royal yachts left in use in Europe. For the most part royal yachts have been superseded by the use of warships in this role, as royal yachts are often seen as a hard-to-justify expenditure. In addition most monarchies with a railway system employ a special set of royal carriages. Most monarchies also employ aircraft as a luxurious (and much more speedy and timely) mode of transportation.
Yachts by country
The Danish royal family have had several royal yachts. Two of them have been named Dannebrog.
- HMDY Sophia Amalia (1650–?)
- HMDY Elephanten (1687–1721)
- HMDY Kiel (1824–1840)
- HDMY Ægir (1841–1855)
- HMDY Slesvig (1855–1879)
- HDMS Jylland (1874–1885) – A frigate which served as a royal yacht on occasion.
- HDMY Dannebrog (1879–1932)
- HDMY Dannebrog (1932–present)
Dubai is the personal yacht of Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, ruler of Dubai and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates. Completed in 2006, she is the second largest yacht currently in service at 524 feet (162 metres) long. She came to world media attention when she sailed out to welcome the retired ocean liner, RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 to Dubai in November 2008.
- Mahroussa a.k.a. El Horria (1866–1951) – Built for Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt. She passed the Suez Canal during its opening. Lengthened twice, converted from paddle steamer to screws. Now serves as a school ship for the Egyptian Navy.
During the existence of the German Empire, the Emperor (Kaiser) used these Imperial Yachts:
- SMY Hohenzollern 1878–1912, renamed SMY Kaiseradler in 1892
- SMY Hohenzollern II 1893–1914
- SMY Hohenzollern III begun in 1914 but never finished
Kingdom of Hawaii
- Cleopatra's Barge (1820–1824) renamed Haʻaheo o Hawaiʻi ("Pride of Hawaii")
- Kamehameha III (till 1849), seized by the French when they invaded Honolulu
- De Groene Draeck (1957–present)
- Jumbo VI Prince Bernhard's Yacht, Moonen 85
King Haakon VII received the Royal Yacht Norge as a gift from the people of Norway in 1947. The Royal Yacht is owned by the King but maintained and manned by the Royal Norwegian Navy. Before this other Navy ships had served as royal sea transport and the King used some smaller boats for short trips mostly on official occasions.
- Sophia Amalia (1650–?)
- Elephanten (1687–1721)
- Heimdal (1892–1946)
- Stjernen I (1899–1940)
- Stjernen II (1945–present)
- Norge (1947–present)
- Horten (1985)
|Al Said||155||Lürssen||2007||Has a helipad, orchestra and swimming pool. It is berthed in Mutrah port most of the time.|
|Fulk al Salamah||136||Lürssen||1982||It has participated in Ship for World Youth.|
|Loaloat Al Behar||103.85||Picchiotti Italy||1982||Largest yacht built in Italy in the 1980s.|
|Zinat al Bihaar||61||Oman Royal Yacht Squadron||1988||Luxury sailing yacht built in Oman with imported engine from Siemens.|
|Al-Noores||33.5||K. Damen Netherlands||1982||Specialized tug boat for the other royal yachts.|
The Imperial Ottoman Government has used many yachts for its Head of State. These include:
- The Imperial Yacht, Tesrifiye
- The Imperial Yacht, İzzeddin
- The Imperial Yacht, Sultaniye
- The Imperial Yacht, Talia
- The Imperial Yacht, Ertuğrul
- Veloz (22,6 m): 1858
- Sirius (22,5 m): 1876
- Amélia I (35 m): 1888;
- Amélia II (45 m): 1897;
- Amélia III (55 m): 1898;
- Amélia IV (70 m): 1901.
The Portuguese King Charles I used four successive royal yachts, all named Amélia, after his wife, Queen Amélie of Orleans. These yachts were, mainly, used by Charles I his oceanographic missions. It was in the Amélia IV that King Manuel II and the Portuguese Royal Family left the country for the exile, after the republican revolution of 5 October 1910. In the republican regime the Amélia IV was renamed NRP 5 de Outubro and operated by the Portuguese Navy.
Imperial Yachts employed by the Tsar of Russia:
- Alexandria (I) (1851–1906)
- Standart (I) (1857–1892)
- Derzhava (1871–1905)
- Tsarevna (1874–1917)
- Livadia (1873–1878); wrecked in Crimea October 21–22, 1878
- Livadia (1880–1926); flawed experimental ship, retired and hulked soon after commissioning. Used by the Romanovs only twice.
- Polyarnaya Zvezda (1890-1917/1961)
- Alexandria (II) (1904-1917/1927)
- Standart (II) (1895-1917/1936-1961 as Soviet Navy minelayer Marti)
Saudi Royal Yachts have included the following:
- Prince Abdulaziz (1984–) Now owned by Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz
- Al Riyadh (1978–)
- El Horriya (1865–)
- Al Salamah (1999–)
- Issham al Baher (1973–)
The United Kingdom has had 83 royal yachts since the restoration of King Charles II in 1660. Charles II himself had 25 royal yachts, while five were simultaneously in service in 1831. Since the decommissioning of Britannia in 1997 the Queen no longer has a royal yacht.
Italy had a royal yacht called Trinacia, the ex America.
The Principality of Monaco owned the princely yacht Deo Juvante II between 1956-1958. The Camper and Nicholsons yacht was a wedding gift from Aristotle Onassis to Prince Rainer and Grace Kelly and was used on their honeymoon. The yacht, now called the M/Y Grace, is now owned and operated by Quasar Expeditions.
- Article in Vi Menn magazine number 31 2006
- Madge, Tim (1997). "2". Royal Yachts of the world. Thomas Reed Publications. p. 21. ISBN 0-901281-74-3.
- Madge, Tim (1997). "2". Royal Yachts of the world. Thomas Reed Publications. p. 25. ISBN 0-901281-74-3.
- Matt Spector (6 August 2008) "World's Elite Make a Splash With Megayachts", ABC News
- Paul Forsythe Johnston (Winter 2002). "A Million Pounds of Sandalwood: The History of Cleopatra’s Barge in Hawaii". The American Neptune 63 (1). pp. 5–45.
- U.S. Library of Congress Query
- By Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia on her maiden voyage from Brest to Ferrol, Spain and by Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia as a passenger on the Black Sea.
- A private web page dedicated to the Standart