Saudia Flight 163
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2012)|
A Saudia L-1011 similar to the one that caught fire.
|Date||19 August 1980|
|Summary||In-flight fire in cargo hold, pilot error|
|Site||Riyadh, Saudi Arabia|
|Aircraft type||Lockheed L-1011-200 TriStar|
|Flight origin||Quaid-e-Azam Int'l Airport
|Stopover||Riyadh International Airport
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
|Destination||Jeddah International Airport
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Saudia Flight 163 was a scheduled passenger flight of Saudia that caught fire after takeoff from Riyadh International Airport (now the Riyadh Air Base) on a flight to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on Tuesday, 19 August 1980. All 287 passengers and 14 crew on board the Lockheed L-1011-200 TriStar registered HZ-AHK, died after the aircraft made an emergency landing back at the Riyadh airport.
At the time, the incident was the second deadliest single aircraft disaster in history, after Turkish Airlines Flight 981. It was also the third deadliest aircraft disaster overall, after the Tenerife airport disaster of 1977 and Turkish Airlines Flight 981. It was also the highest death toll of any aviation accident in Saudi Arabia and the highest death toll of any accident involving a Lockheed L-1011 anywhere in the world. It is also the deadliest aviation disaster that did not involve a crash on impact or mid-flight break up.
Passengers and crew
Saudi officials said that most of the passengers were Saudis or Pakistanis, with many of the passengers being Pakistani religious pilgrims. The aviation directorate stated that 82 of the passengers boarded in Karachi and, of the passengers who boarded in Riyadh, 32 were religious pilgrims from Iran. Diplomats in Jeddah said that in addition to the Iranian, Saudi and Pakistani passengers, there were four Koreans, three Britons, two Thais, one Finn, one Irishman, one Dutchman, two Americans and one Japanese on board the flight. The crew included six Filipinos, three Pakistanis, and one Briton. Both the pilot and co-pilot were Saudi nationals with the flight engineer being a United States national, Bradley Curtis.
Flight 163 took off at 18:08 GMT to complete its final leg to Jeddah. Almost seven minutes into the flight, the crew received warnings of smoke in the plane's aft cargo compartment, C3. The next four minutes were spent by the crew trying to confirm the warnings, and by the flight engineer going back into the cabin to confirm the presence of smoke in the cabin. The captain decided to return to the airport. The thrust lever for the number 2 engine (center engine) later became stuck as the fire burned through the operating cable, and the engine was shut down on final approach.
The captain declared an emergency and returned to Riyadh International Airport and landed safely. After touchdown, contrary to the captain's declaration of an emergency landing, the airplane continued to a taxiway at the end of the runway and exited the runway, stopping on the taxiway 2 minutes 40 seconds after touchdown. The airport fire rescue equipment were stationed at the landing section of the runway expecting an emergency stop and evacuation. Why the captain did not immediately order an emergency evacuation of the aircraft is unknown. Because the fire rescue equipment was farther down the runway it took extra time to arrive at the aircraft, which had used the entire length of a 4,000-metre (13,000 ft) runway to slow and exit onto a taxiway. The aircraft stopped on the taxiway facing the opposite direction from landing. On arrival at the aircraft the rescue personnel did not immediately attempt to open any of the aircraft doors as the engines on the wings were still running. These two engines were shut down three minutes and 15 seconds after the aircraft came to a stop. There was no external fire visible at this time, but flames were observed through the windows at the rear of the aircraft. 23 minutes after engine shut down, the R2 door (second door on the right side) was opened by ground personnel. Three minutes later, the aircraft burst into flames, and was consumed by fire. Autopsies were conducted on some of the non-Saudi nationals including the American flight engineer. All perished from smoke inhalation and not burns, which indicated that they had died long before the R2 door was opened.
One final transmission was received after the plane stopped, indicating that the emergency evacuation was about to begin. All of the victims were found in the forward half of the fuselage.
It took 23 minutes from the engine shutdown until the fuselage was accessed. Saudi reports stated that the crew could not get the plug-type doors to open in time. It is assumed that most passengers and flight attendants were incapacitated during the landing roll or they would not have attempted to open a door on a moving aircraft. It is known that the aircraft remained pressurized during the landing roll as the cabin pressurization system was on standby and the aircraft was found with both pressurization doors almost completely closed. These pressurization doors should have opened completely on touchdown to depressurize the aircraft. The crew were found still in their flight station seats. The source of the fire in the C3 is unknown.
The investigation revealed that the fire had started in the aft C3 cargo compartment. The fire was intense enough to burn through the cabin floor, causing passengers seated in that area of the fire to move further forward in the cabin prior to the emergency landing. Saudi officials subsequently found two butane stoves in the burned-out remains of the airliner, with a used fire extinguisher near one of them. Some Middle Eastern airlines used to allow devout Muslim passengers to use butane stoves on board in order to observe Islam's strict dietary laws – a practice unthinkable on Western airlines. The Saudi government had recently passed regulations forbidding them, but Muslim pilgrims still tried to smuggle them aboard. One early report of the crash specifically blamed a passenger's use of a butane stove for the fire. The stove was supposedly used to prepare hot water for tea.
Walter Muller, a former chief of the Policy Analysis Division of the Federal Aviation Administration, filed a lawsuit against Lockheed, Saudia, and Trans World Airlines, an American airline that trained Saudi pilots and supervised the Saudi maintenance program. Muller's brother, Jack A. Muller, and his sister in law, Elizabeth S. Muller, died in the fire. Muller's suit stated that Lockheed allowed for "dangerous materials to be incorporated in the fuselage," that there was no vent system to distribute the gases away from the passengers, and that a sufficient oxygen system did not exist. Muller's suit accused Saudia of not properly maintaining the aircraft and providing safety for passengers and accused TWA of not properly maintaining the Saudia aircraft and not properly training crew.
In 1982 the television series World in Action aired an episode entitled "The Mystery of Flight 163" which documented the accident and was subsequently used to train pilots in the value of Crew resource management.
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- List of accidents and incidents on commercial airliners
- "ASN Aircraft accident Lockheed L-1011 Tristar 200 HZ-AHK Riyad International Airport (RUH)".
- Witkin, Richard (11 February 1981). "Safety Board Urges Improvments in Fireproofing of Jumbo Jets". The New York Times.
- "Did stove cause disaster?". The Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. 21 August 1980.
- "Mecca pilgrims among victims Gas stoves found in burned plane". The Globe and Mail. 29 August 1980.
- Haine, Edgar A. (2000). Disaster in the Air. Associated University Presses. pp. 67–69.
- Official accident report "Saudi Arabian Airlines flight 163 Accident Report". Saudi Arabian Presidency of Civil Aviation. Retrieved June 2013. (Archive)
- "Saudi Fire Negligence Suit Filed". Air Transport. Aviation Week & Space Technology. 27 October 1980. p. 32.
- "Saudi Arabian Airlines flight 163 Accident Findings". Saudi Arabian Presidency of Civil Aviation. Retrieved June 2013. (Archive)
- "This Day in History: August 19 – Fire on Saudi jet kills 301". The History Channel. Retrieved June 2013.
- "Jetliner fire first started by stove; death toll set at 301". The Morning Record and Journal. United Press International. 21 August 1980. p. 22.
- Witkin, Richard (17 October 1980). "Family Suing in Saudi Airliner Fire; Crew Found Partly at Fault". The New York Times.
- Karlins, Marvin; Koh, Freddie; McCully, Len; Chan, C. T. (April 1996). "CRM for CRM: Cockpit Relevant Movies for Crew Resource Management" (96.2). The CRM Advocate. Retrieved June 2013.
- "Crew Resource Management – Saudia 163 (Segments from the World in Action episode, The Mystery of Flight 163)". Youtube. 11 June 2013. Retrieved June 2013.
|Airliners.Net Picture of Saudia 163|
- Burian, Barbara K. (2006). "Aeronautical Emergency and Abnormal Checklists: Expectations and Realities". NASA Ames Research Center. Retrieved June 2013.
- Thomson, Jim (2013). "Human Behaviour in a Crisis – The Saudia 163 Accident, 1980". Safetyinengineering.com. Retrieved June 2013.
- Witkin, Richard (21 August 1980). "Fire on Saudi Plane Believed to Have Started in Cabin; Cockpit Escape Hatch Not Used". The New York Times.
- Final Accident Report – General Authority of Civil Aviation (Archive)
- Picture at PlaneCrashInfo.Com
- Cockpit voice recorder transcript
- AirDisaster.Com Description (Main Database)
- PlaneCrashInfo.Com article on Saudia 163