Lockheed L-1011 TriStar
|Gulf Air L-1011-200 TriStar on final approach at London Heathrow Airport in 1983|
|First flight||November 16, 1970|
|Introduction||April 26, 1972 with Eastern Air Lines|
|Status||In limited service|
|Primary users||British Airways (historical)
Trans World Airlines (historical)
Delta Air Lines (historical)
|Variants||Lockheed TriStar (RAF)
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 (pronounced "L-ten-eleven") or TriStar, is a medium-to-long-range, wide-body trijet airliner. It was the third widebody airliner to enter commercial operations, after the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. The aircraft has a seating capacity of up to 400 passengers and a range of over 4,000 nautical miles (7,410 km). Its trijet configuration places one Rolls-Royce RB211 engine under each wing, with a third, center-mounted RB211 engine with an S-duct air inlet embedded in the tail and the upper fuselage. The aircraft has an autoland capability, an automated descent control system, and available lower deck galley and lounge facilities.
The L-1011 TriStar was produced in two fuselage lengths. The original L-1011-1 first flew in November 1970, and entered service with Eastern Air Lines in 1972. The shortened, long-range L-1011-500 first flew in 1978, and entered service with British Airways a year later. The original length TriStar was also produced as the high gross weight L-1011-100, uprated engine L-1011-200, and further upgraded L-1011-250. Post-production conversions for the L-1011-1 with increased takeoff weights included the L-1011-50 and L-1011-150.
Between 1968 and 1984, Lockheed manufactured a total of 250 TriStars. The aircraft's sales were hampered by two years of delays due to developmental and financial problems at Rolls-Royce, the sole manufacturer of the TriStar's engines. After production ended, Lockheed withdrew from the commercial aircraft business due to its below-target sales.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Accidents and incidents
- 7 Aircraft on display
- 8 Specifications
- 9 Popular culture
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
In the 1960s, American Airlines approached Lockheed and competitor Douglas (later McDonnell Douglas) with the need for an airliner smaller than the 747 capable of carrying a large passenger load to distant locales such as London and Latin America from company hubs at Dallas/Ft Worth and New York. Lockheed had been largely absent from the civil airliner market since the late 1950s following problems with the L-188 Electra, which suffered a number of crashes early in its career. Having experienced difficulties with some of their military programs, Lockheed was eager to re-enter the civil market, and their response was the L-1011 TriStar. The aircraft was originally conceived as a "jumbo twin", but a three-engine design was ultimately chosen to give the aircraft enough thrust to take off from existing runways.
The design featured a twin-aisle interior with a maximum of 400 passengers, a three-engine layout, low noise emissions (in the early 1970s, Eastern Air Lines nicknamed the L-1011 "WhisperLiner"), improved reliability and efficient operation. The main visible difference between the TriStar and its similar trijet competitor, the McDonnell Douglas DC-10, is the middle/tail engine: the DC-10's engine is mounted above the fuselage for simplicity of design and more economical construction, while the TriStar's engine is mounted to the rear fuselage and fed through an S-duct (similar to the Boeing 727) for reduced drag, improved stability, and easier replacement. A further major difference between the L-1011 and the DC-10 was Lockheed's selection of the Rolls-Royce RB211 as the only engine for the L-1011. As originally designed, the RB211 turbofan was an advanced three-spool design with a carbon fibre fan, which would have better efficiency and power-to-weight ratio than any competing design. This would make the L-1011 more efficient, a major selling point.
American Airlines opted for the Douglas DC-10, although they showed considerable interest in the L-1011. American's intent was to convince Douglas to lower their price for the DC-10, which they did. Without the support of American, the TriStar was launched on orders from TWA and Eastern Air Lines. Although the TriStar's design schedule closely followed that of its competitor, Douglas beat Lockheed to market by a year due to delays in powerplant development.
In February 1971, after massive development costs associated with the RB211, Rolls-Royce went into receivership. This halted L-1011 final assembly and Lockheed investigated the possibility of a US engine supplier; by then it was considered too late to change engine suppliers. One option presented was potential outsource of RB-211 production to Canadian manufacturer Orenda Engines.
The British government agreed to approve a large state subsidy to restart Rolls-Royce operations on condition the U.S. government guarantee the bank loans Lockheed needed to complete the L-1011 project. Despite some opposition, not least from the then Governor of California Ronald Reagan, the U.S. government provided these guarantees. For the rest of the RB211 project, Rolls-Royce remained a government-owned company.
The TriStar's internal Lockheed model number is L-093. The prototype first flew on November 17, 1970. The crew for that flight was H. B. Dees (pilot), Ralph C. Cokely (copilot), and G.E. Fisher (development engineer). The L-1011 was certified on April 14, 1972 with the first airliner delivered to Eastern Air Lines on April 26, 1972. In an effort to further publicize the new aircraft, an L-1011 was taken on a world tour during 1972 by famed Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier.
Manufactured in Lockheed facilities in Burbank and Palmdale, California, the TriStar faced direct competition from the McDonnell Douglas DC-10, which it closely resembled. Trans World Airlines heralded the TriStar as one of the safest aircraft in the world in promotional literature in the 1980s when concern over the safety record of the DC-10, flown by rival airlines, was at its peak. Five L-1011s have been involved in fatal accidents, only one of which was due to a problem with the aircraft.
Lockheed discovered fairly early on that the TriStar suffered from higher than estimated structural weight, engine weight and specific fuel consumption. To rectify this problem and to meet performance guarantees, Lockheed developed a structural kit that allowed MTOW to be increased on production aircraft from 409,000 to 430,000 pounds (186,000 to 195,000 kg). However, the weight problems affected the weight and desirability of early production L-1011-1 aircraft, known as Group 1 (msn 1002 through to 1012).
Group 1 aircraft have on OEW of 252,700 pounds (114,600 kg), about 12,700 pounds (5,800 kg) higher than later aircraft, while Group 2 aircraft (msn 1013 through 1051) have an OEW of 247,000 pounds (112,000 kg), some 4,700 pounds (2,100 kg) lower. These aircraft, in general, also have different center of gravity envelopes with the forward center of gravity limit on the early aircraft being more restrictive at higher gross weights. Group 1 and Group 2 aircraft (msn 1002 to 1051) are upgradeable only to -50 or -150 specifications, although the Group 1 aircraft (up to msn 1012) still maintain their operating disadvantages. L-1011-1 from msn 1052 onwards are Group 3 aircraft and are fully upgradeable to all variants up to -250 specification.
Lockheed needed to sell 500 airliners to break even, but in 1981 the company announced production would end with delivery of the 250th and last L-1011 on order in 1984. A total of 250 TriStars were sold compared to 446 DC-10s, partly because of the TriStar's delayed introduction but particularly because a larger version with a longer range was not initially offered. Under state control, costs at Rolls-Royce were tightly controlled. The company's efforts largely went into the original TriStar engines, which needed considerable modifications between the L-1011's first flight and service entry. The competition, notably General Electric, were very quick to develop their CF6 engine with more thrust, which meant that a heavier "intercontinental" DC-10-30 could be more quickly brought to market. The flexibility afforded to potential customers by a long-range DC-10 put the L-1011 at a serious disadvantage. Rolls-Royce went on to develop the high-thrust RB211-524 for the L-1011-200 and -500, but this took many years. The TriStar's failure to achieve profitability caused Lockheed to withdraw from the civil aircraft business.
The L-1011 featured a highly advanced autopilot system and was the first widebody to receive FAA certification for Cat-IIIc autolanding, which approved the TriStar for completely blind landings in zero-visibility weather performed by the aircraft's autopilot. The L-1011 used an Inertial Navigation System (INS) to navigate; this included aligning the navigation system by entering current coordinates of longitude and latitude.
It also had a unique Direct Lift Control (DLC) system, which allowed for smooth approaches when landing, without having to use significant pitch changes while on the approach path. DLC helps maintain the descending glideslope on final approach by automatically deploying spoiler panels on the wings. Thus, rather than maintaining the descent by adjusting pitch, DLC helps control the descent while maintaining a more consistent pitch angle, using four redundant hydraulic systems. Production also utilized a unique "autoclave" system for bonding fuselage panels together; this made the L-1011 extremely resistant to corrosion.
The earlier versions of the L-1011, such as the -1, -100, and -150 can be distinguished from the later models by the design of the middle engine nacelles. The earlier version nacelle has a round intake, whereas the later models have a small vertical fin between the bottom of the middle engine intake and the top of the fuselage.
The two L-1011 aircraft delivered to Pacific Southwest Airlines were configured with internal airstair doors that led into an entry hall in what was normally the forward lower baggage hold. This was to allow operations from airfields that did not have terminal buildings with jet bridges. These two aircraft were later in service with Aeroperú and Worldways Canada.
In an effort to secure the Japanese market, Lockheed had secretly bribed several members of the Japanese government to subsidize ANA's purchase of L-1011s; however, this caused a significant scandal when the bribes were uncovered. The discovered scale to what has become known as the Lockheed bribery scandal led to the arrest of Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka as well as several other officials. Within Lockheed, board chairman Daniel Haughton and vice chairman and president Carl Kotchian resigned their posts on February 13, 1976. Tanaka was eventually tried and found guilty of violating foreign exchange control laws, but was not charged with bribery, a more serious criminal offense. Crucially for Lockheed, the fallout from the scandal included the loss of a contract worth in excess of $1 billion.
The Soviet Union at that time lacked a widebody airliner. Development of their own Ilyushin Il-86 was delayed; consequently, in the mid-1970s, the Soviets started negotiations to buy 30 TriStars and licence-produce up to 100 a year. The talks collapsed as US President Jimmy Carter made human rights a US policy factor. The TriStar was also listed by the Coordinating Committee as embodying advanced technology banned from potential enemies, thus being a serious obstacle to the export deal.
Delta Air Lines was the type's largest customer. Delta Air Lines retired its TriStars in 2001 to replace them with the Boeing 767-400ER. Cathay Pacific eventually became the largest non-U.S. operator of the type by acquiring many of the Eastern Air Lines examples when Eastern went bankrupt, operating as many as 21 aircraft. Cathay Pacific retired its L-1011s in October 1996, and replaced the type with the Airbus A330-300. TWA withdrew its last TriStar from service in 1997.
The L-1011 has seen recent use by smaller start-up carriers, particularly in Africa and Asia. These operators mainly do their business in the ad hoc charter and wet leasing businesses. ATA Airlines (formerly known as American Trans Air) fleet included over 19 Tristars, but operations dwindled to only three L1011-500s prior to the company's shutdown in April 2008.
In the early 1990s, Orbital Sciences began to use a converted L-1011-100 named Stargazer to launch Pegasus rockets into orbit around Earth. This venture effectively rendered the small Scout rocket obsolete. This aircraft was also used in support of the X-34 and X-43 programs. NASA performed aerodynamic research on Orbital Sciences' L-1011 in 1995. As of 2014[update], three L-1011 in the world are airworthy, and the Stargazer is the only one in the US.
The TriStar has also been used as a military tanker and passenger/cargo aircraft. The Royal Air Force had nine aircraft of four variants. The aircraft were six ex-British Airways and three Pan Am L-1011-500s. All of the aircraft served with No. 216 Squadron, and were based at RAF Brize Norton. The Tristar was replaced in RAF service by the Airbus A330 MRTT under the Future Strategic Tanker Aircraft (FSTA) program. 216 Squadron was officially disbanded on 20 March 2014 and flew its last sorties with the TriStar on 24 March 2014.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2010)|
The L-1011-1 (FAA certification L-1011-385-1) was the first production model of the L-1011, designed for short and medium-range flights. This variant served as the basis for subsequent variants. This type was purchased by Air Canada, ANA, Cathay Pacific, Eastern and other operators with regional trunk routes requiring a widebody aircraft. Pacific Southwest Airlines purchased two L-1011-1 models with lower deck seating. This variant was also one of the few widebodies to have the option for a full-height built-in airstair.
The L-1011-1 was first delivered to Eastern Air Lines on April 5, 1972. A total of 160 L-1011-1 TriStars were built before production ended in 1983, although the majority of these, 119 or 75% of the total, were completed during a four-year period between 1972 and 1975. Most sales of the L-1011-1 were to US operators, with just three airlines, Delta, Eastern, and TWA, taking delivery of 110 combined. A further two aircraft were placed with a fourth US airline, Pacific Southwest Airlines.
The L-1011-100 (FAA certification L-1011-385-1-15) was the second production model of the L-1011 and first flew in 1975 and featured a new center fuel tank and higher gross weights that increased the aircraft's range by nearly 930 miles (1,500 km). Launch orders for the L-1011-100 were placed by Saudia and Cathay Pacific, for two each, in May 1974. First deliveries took place in June 1975.
The variant was also purchased by several airlines with longer-range routes, such as TWA, Air Canada and BEA (which merged with BOAC to form British Airways). The first two L-1011-100s (msn 1110 and 1116) were delivered new to Saudia with the same fuel capacity as the L-1011-1 (FAA certification L-1011-385-1-14), these were later upgraded to L-1011-200 specification.
The L-1011-50 was an upgraded version of the L-1011-1 with an increase in maximum takeoff weight from 430,000 pounds (200,000 kg) to either 440,000 pounds (200,000 kg) or 450,000 pounds (200,000 kg). Fuel capacity was not increased. The -50 was available only as a conversion package for the L-1011-1 and was never built new.
The L-1011-150 was a development of the L-1011-1 with maximum takeoff weight increased to 470,000 pounds (210,000 kg). It was available only as a conversion for the L-1011-1. The -150 involves the conversion of Group 1 and Group 2 L-1011-1 aircraft to an MTOW of 470,000 pounds (210,000 kg), an increase of 40,000 pounds (18,000 kg), about 10%, from the L-10110-1, giving the aircraft a slightly better range than the -50 but, without the additional center section fuel tank, less than the L-1011-100 aircraft. The first aircraft was converted by MBB at Lemwarder in Germany during the winter of 1988/89 and was subsequently handed over to Air Transat of Canada on May 11, 1989.
The L-1011-200 (FAA certification L-1011-385-1-15) was the third production model of the L-1011 and was introduced in 1976. Although otherwise similar to the -100, the -200 uses Rolls-Royce RB.211-524B engines to improve its performance in hot and high-altitude conditions. Gulf Air used -200 models to replace its earlier generation Vickers VC-10 fleet.
Other than the engines, the basic TriStar 200 is similar to the -100, with center section fuel, having the MTOW of 466,000 pounds (211,000 kg), and fuel capacity of 26,400 US gallons (100,000 l) as the -100. An increase of gross weight to 474,000 pounds (215,000 kg) is possible, with the heavier aircraft offered by Lockheed as -200Is or -200(Improved). Saudi Arabian Airlines (Saudia) was a launch customer for the -200 series and operated a sizable fleet until 1998. A total of 24 L-1011-200 aircraft were built new, with the first delivered to Saudia on May 28, 1977. Like other TriStar improvements, a conversion program has also been offered.
The L-1011-250 was an upgrade developed for late-model L-1011-1 aircraft and all L-1011-100 and L-1011-200 aircraft. It increased maximum takeoff weight to 510,000 pounds (230,000 kg) and fuel capacity from 23,600 US gal (89,335 l) to 31,632 US gal (119,735 l). This variant also used the upgraded RB211-524B4I engine, which could be easily upgraded on the existing RB211-524B powerplants of the L-1011-200 but required a re-engining on the L-1011-1 and L-1011-100, which used the original RB211-22B. The upgrade allowed the L-1011 to match the performance of the long-range McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30. Although it was applicable to all L-1011 models, it was only used by Delta Air Lines on six late-model L-1011-1 aircraft.
The L-1011-500 (FAA certification L-1011-385-3) was the last L-1011 variant to enter production. The L-1011-500 was a longer-range variant first flight tested in 1978. Its fuselage length was shortened by 14 feet (4.3 m) and maximum take-off weight increased to allow higher fuel loads. It also uses the more powerful engines of the -200 series. The -500 variant was popular among international operators and formed a significant portion of the L-1011 fleet of Delta and British Airways. However, its late introduction resulted in many potential customers buying the DC-10-30 instead.
The TriStar 500 has an overall length of 164 feet 2 inches (50.04 m) and wingspan increased to 164 feet 4 inches (50.09 m) (early TriStar versions originally had the TriStar 1 wing with a span of 155 feet 4 inches (47.35 m)).
Lockheed developed some aerodynamic improvements for the TriStar 500 which included a modified wing to body fairing, a fillet below the central intake, extended wingtips and "active ailerons" or active control system (ACS). The new fairing reduced drag while the fillet reduced noise in the rear cabin. The wingtip extensions increased aspect ratio thus reducing induced drag but would have resulted in increased bending. The ACS, developed to solve this, provided gust alleviation, improving ride during flight, reduced fuel burn and increased fatigue life.
Earlier TriStar 500s were delivered with the standard wing; however, these were later retrofitted with ailerons and extended wingtips. Pan Am was the first customer to order the -500 with the extended wingtips and active ailerons. Msn 1176, the first for Pan Am, was the first TriStar 500 to be fitted with them as standard.
The TriStar 500 is equipped with the more powerful RB211-524B engines. Initially rated at 50,000 lbf (220 kN) thrust each, the higher thrust 53,000 lbf (240 kN) -524B4 Improved (also referred to as the -524B4I) later became available, which also offered improved fuel efficiency.
Originally certified with an MTOW of 496,000 pounds (225,000 kg), an increased MTOW of 504,000 pounds (229,000 kg) was later certified in 1979 and all earlier production aircraft were certified at this weight. A further increase, to 510,000 pounds (230,000 kg) is also available and it is understood that most TriStar 500s have had this increase. Standard fuel capacity is 31,600 US gallons (120,000 l), giving the TriStar 500 a range of about 5,200 nautical miles (9,600 km) with 246 passengers and baggage.
The TriStar 500's maximum passenger capacity is 315 although no aircraft were operated at this density. The aircraft is equipped with six (6) exits, two less than the long body TriStars, thus reducing the exit limit maximum. A typical two class layout might include 21 first and 229 economy for a maximum of 250 passengers. More spacious three-class layouts used on longer routes include 233 with 12 first, 32 business, and 189 economy with Delta Air Lines.
- First Flight: October 16, 1978.
- First Delivery: April 27, 1979 British Airways.
- Entry into service: May 7, 1979 British Airways on Heathrow-Abu Dhabi route.
- Last Delivery: October 1983 (msn 1250).
- Total Delivered: 250
Lockheed L-1011 TriStars in service as of June 2014:
|Air Charter Express||1|
Accidents and incidents
Of the four pioneering wide-body aircraft (Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, L-1011 and Airbus A300/A310 family), the Lockheed L-1011 had comparatively few accidents and a better safety record than its competitors.
Notable accidents and incidents
- In 1972, Eastern Air Lines Flight 401, an L-1011, crashed in the Florida Everglades as a result of the flight crew's failure to monitor the flight instruments during a malfunction of the landing gear position indicator system. The crash resulted in 101 fatalities, and was the subject of two TV movies, Crash and The Ghost of Flight 401. It was also broadcast on a Mayday episode.
- On August 19, 1980, a fire destroyed the L-1011-200 used for Saudia Flight 163 on the ground after the pilots made an emergency landing at Riyadh's International Airport due to fire in the rear of the aircraft. Delays in initiating the evacuation of the aircraft led to the deaths of all 287 passengers and 14 crew.
- On December 23, 1980, Saudia Flight 162, an L-1011, had a tire explode and penetrate the passenger cabin. The aircraft lost cabin pressure and two passengers fell out of the aircraft.
- On September 22, 1981, Eastern Airlines Flight 935 departed Newark, New Jersey and suffered an uncontained failure of its number two (tail) engine at 14,500 feet (4,400 m), while en route to San Juan, Puerto Rico. The fragments from that engine damaged three of its four hydraulic systems resulting in fluid loss in them. The rudder pedals also jammed. The fragments impacted but did not puncture the lines for the other hydraulic system; the captain was able to safely land the aircraft at John F. Kennedy International Airport, with some limited use of the outboard spoilers, the inboard ailerons and the horizontal stabilizer, plus differential engine power of the remaining two engines. There were no injuries. The L-1011 having four hydraulic systems (instead of three like the DC-10) allowed for a safe landing.
- On May 5, 1983, Eastern Air Lines Flight 855, L-1011 registration N334EA, while flying from Miami to Nassau, shut down the #2 engine due to low oil pressure and began a return to Miami. Both of the remaining engines later failed. Without power, flight 855 descended from 13,000 to 4,000 feet (1,200 m) before the #2 engine was restarted and the aircraft landed in Miami without injuries. Incorrect engine maintenance had led to the loss of oil on all three engines.
- On August 2, 1985, Delta Air Lines Flight 191, an L-1011, crashed while approaching Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport in micro burst conditions. The crash killed eight of 11 crew members and 128 of the 152 passengers on board as well as one person on the ground.
- On October 18, 1985, a Jordanian Airlines L-1011 experienced an inflight fire at 24,000 feet while on approach to Singapore. The fire burned though the rear pressure bulkhead, causing explosive depressurization of the cabin. The air rushing out of the cabin extinguished the fire, saving the aircraft.
- On May 3, 1986, Air Lanka Flight 512, an L-1011, was destroyed on the ground in Colombo, Sri Lanka, after a bomb exploded in the rear cargo hold severing the tail and killing 21 people.
- On July 30, 1992, TWA Flight 843, an L-1011, had its takeoff aborted by the captain after liftoff from JFK, in response to a false stall warning. The aircraft landed too hard, breaking a wing spar and starting a fire. All 292 passengers and crew evacuated safely, with only 10 minor injuries. The airliner was destroyed by fire.
Aircraft on display
- The forward upper fuselage of the prototype aircraft, N1011, is preserved at the Delta Flight Museum in Atlanta, Georgia, painted in Delta colors.
- TriStar 500 9Y-TGN of BWIA is on display in the Chaguaramas Military History & Aerospace Museum in Trinidad.
- TriStar 100 TT-DWE originally delivered to British Airways is on display at the Emirates National Auto Museum.
|Seating capacity||400 (1-class)
|Cabin width (interior)||18 feet 11 inches (5.77 m)|
|Overall length||177 ft 8 1⁄2 in (54.17 m)||164 ft 2 1⁄2 in (50.05 m)|
|Wingspan||155 ft 4 in (47.35 m)||164 ft 4 in (50.09 m)|
|Tailspan||71 ft 7 in (21.82 m)|
|Overall height||55 ft 4 in (16.87 m)|
|Wing area||3,456 sq ft (321.1 m2)||3,541 sq ft (329.0 m2)|
|Maximum take-off weight||430,000 lb (200,000 kg)||466,000 lb (211,374 kg)||510,000 lb (231,332 kg)|
|Maximum landing weight||358,000 lb (162,386 kg)||368,000 lb (166,922 kg)||368,000 lb (166,922 kg)|
|Operating empty weight||241,700 lb (110,000 kg)||248,400 lb (113,000 kg)||245,400 lb (111,000 kg)|
|Max. speed||Mach 0.95 (Max continuous speed = Mach 0.90)|
(at 30,000 ft (9,100 m))
|520 kn (963 km/h; 598 mph)||515 kn (954 km/h; 593 mph)||525 kn (972 km/h; 604 mph)|
at max. landing weight,
flaps and gear down
|108 kn (200 km/h; 124 mph)||110 kn (204 km/h; 127 mph)||114 kn (211 km/h; 131 mph)|
(max. passengers + baggage)
|2,680 nmi (4,963 km; 3,084 mi)||3,600 nmi (6,667 km; 4,143 mi)||5,345 nmi (9,899 km; 6,151 mi)|
|4,250 nmi (7,871 km; 4,891 mi)||4,935 nmi (9,140 km; 5,679 mi)||6,090 nmi (11,279 km; 7,008 mi)|
|Service ceiling||42,000 ft (12,800 m)||43,000 ft (13,100 m)|
|Engines (×3)||Rolls-Royce RB.211-22||Rolls-Royce RB.211-524B|
|Thrust (×3)||42,000 lbf (187 kN)||50,000 lbf (222 kN)|
|Fuel capacity||23,814 US gal (90,150 l)||26,502 US gal (100,320 l)||31,642 US gal (119,780 l)|
Sources: Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982–83 except where stated
- The airliner used on the ABC television series Lost is a dismantled L-1011, formerly belonging to Eastern Airlines and later Delta Air Lines.
- The airliner in the Stephen King TV miniseries The Langoliers is a Lockheed L-1011.
- The airliner featured in the 1992 action film Passenger 57 was an L-1011 TriStar.
- The band El Ten Eleven, a Los Angeles, California post-rock duo, derives its name from the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar.
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Greenwald, John, Jerry Hannifin and Joseph J. Kane. "Catch a Falling TriStar." Time, December 21, 1981. Retrieved: January 6, 2007.
- "Accident Synopsis 09291959." AirDisaster.Com, 2008. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "NASA Wind Tunnel Tests." NASA. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "Disasters: Electra's Tragedy." TIME, October 17, 1960.
- "Lockheed L-1011." Chasing the Sun (PBS). Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- The Aeronautical Journal, Volume 78. Royal Aeronautical Society, 1974, pp. 392, 398. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "Three Shaft Engine Design." Rolls-Royce. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- Pugh 2001, pp. 120–122.
- "The New Steel." Flight International, October 24, 1968.
- Boyne 1998, p. 354.
- "Lockheed's Rough Ride with Rolls-Royce." Time, February 15, 1971.
- Wood, Robert. "Jumbo Jet engines for Lockheed push Rolls-Royce in red." Los Angeles Times, November 12, 1970.
- Lindsey, Robert. "Lockheed seeks U.S. Engine now: Retooling cost of a switch could run to $100-million." The New York Times, February 5, 1971.
- "Canadian 'key' has no plans." Montreal Gazette, February 9, 1971.
- They did this because if Lockheed (which was itself weakened by the difficulties) had failed, the market for the RB211 would have evaporated.
- Lewis, Antony. "British grant set for Rolls-Royce: Government to spend up to $100-Million in Rescue Bid." The New York Times, November 12, 1970.
- 'New Life for TriStar." Time, May 17, 1971. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "Rolls-Royce still alive and kicking." Montreal Gazette, February 18, 1972.
- Donald 1997, p. 579.
- "Lockheed L-1011." super70s.com. Retrieved: December 4, 2011,
- Jones, Jack. "Saddened Lockheed workers still view L-1011 with pride." Los Angeles Times, December 8, 1981.
- "Lockheed to stop l-1011 production." Sumter Daily Item,December 8, 1981.
- "Engine Update." Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 48, 1976, p. 5.
- Young, David. "Look Ma, no hands - learning how to land a jumbo jet." Chicago Tribune, September 18, 1977.
- "LTN-92 Laser Gyro INS." Northrop Grumman. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "Report: Lockheed L1011-500 Tristar, CS-TMP." Air Accidents Investigation Branch. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "Report: Lockheed L1011-385-1-14, G-BBAF (p. 5)." Air Accidents Investigation Branch. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- Kocivar, Ben. "Giant Tri-Jets Are Coming." Popular Science, Volume 197, Issue 6, December 1970, pp. 50–52. ISSN 0161-7370.
- "Payoff scandal could prove costly to Lockheed; Japanese might halt orders." The Bulletin, February 27, 1976.
- "Lockheed's Japanese data asked in Senate subpoena." The New York Times, April 3, 1976. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- Kamm, Henry. "Lockheed Scandal in Japan headed for its trial phase." The New York Times, January 24, 1977.
- Lindsey, Robert. "Kotchian calls himself the Scapegoat." The New York Times, July 3, 1977.
- "Bribery Shokku At the Top." Time, August 9, 1976. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "The Lockheed Scandal." Kakuei Tanaka. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "Lockheed loses big Japanese contract." St. Petersburg Times, February 11, 1976.
- "Facts: The Ilyushin Il-86." CNN, July 28, 2002. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "Soviet Wide-Bodied Jet begins regular service to East Berlin." Los Angeles Times, July 4, 1981.
- Birtles, Philip. Lockheed TriStar (Modern Civil Aircraft No 8). London: Ian Allan, 1989. ISBN 978-1-85310-934-8.
- "A British paper said Russia may buy the jet engine used in the Tristar." Los Angeles Times, November 1, 1973.
- Neikirk, Bill. "World hears Carter human rights call." Chicago Tribune, March 27, 1977.
- Jacoby, Tamar. "Did Carter fail on human rights?" Washington Monthly, June 1986.
- "Delta History - Lockheed L-1011." Delta Museum. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
- "Tristar used to launch Pegasus." Orbital.com. Retrieved: July 16, 2011.
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