Jeddah

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This article is about the Saudi Arabian city. For the Australian movie, see Jedda. For the Bahraini island, see Jidda Island. For the steamship, see SS Jeddah.
Jeddah
جدّة Jidda
City
Skyline of Jeddah
Skyline of Jeddah
Nickname(s): The Bride of the Red Sea
Motto: We live in Jeddah
Jeddah is located in Saudi Arabia
Jeddah
Jeddah
Location in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Coordinates: 21°32′36″N 39°10′22″E / 21.54333°N 39.17278°E / 21.54333; 39.17278Coordinates: 21°32′36″N 39°10′22″E / 21.54333°N 39.17278°E / 21.54333; 39.17278
Country Saudi Arabia
Province Makkah (Mecca)
Established From the 6th century BC
Joined Saudi Arabia 1925
Government
 • City Mayor Hani Abu Ras[1]
 • City Governor Mish'al Al-Saud
 • Provincial Governor Mishaal bin Abdullah Al Saud
Area
 • Urban 1,686 km2 (651 sq mi)
 • Metro 3,000 km2 (1,000 sq mi)
Elevation 12 m (39 ft)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City 3,456,259
Time zone AST (UTC+3)
 • Summer (DST) AST (UTC+3)
Postal Code (5 digit codes beginning with 21; eg 21453)
Area code(s) +966-12
Website Jeddah Municipality
Official name: Historic Jeddah, the Gate to Makkah
Type: Cultural
Criteria: ii, iv, vi
Designated: 2014 (38th session)
Reference No. 1361
State Party: Saudi Arabia
Region: Arab States

Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda ; English pronunciation: /ˈɛdə/; Arabic: جدةJiddah or Jaddah, IPA: [ˈdʒɪddæ, ˈdʒæddæ]) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. With a population currently at 5.1 million, Jeddah is an important commercial hub in Saudi Arabia. It was devastated by floods in early 2011.

Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca, Islam's holiest city, which able-bodied Muslims are required to visit at least once in their lifetime. It is also a gateway to Medina, the second holiest place in Islam.

Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East.[3] Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the AfricaMid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index.[4]

Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Gamma world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC).

Historically, Jeddah has been well known for its legendary money changers. The largest of said money changers at the time (the late Sheikh Salem Bin Mahfouz) eventually founded Saudi Arabia's first bank, the National Commercial Bank (NCB).

Etymology and spelling[edit]

There are at least two explanations for the etymology of the name Jeddah, according to Jeddah Ibn Al-Qudaa'iy, the chief of the Quda'a clan. The more common account has it that the name is derived from جدة Jaddah, the Arabic word for "grandmother". According to eastern folk belief, the tomb of Eve (21°29′31″N 39°11′24″E / 21.49194°N 39.19000°E / 21.49194; 39.19000), considered the grandmother of humanity, is located in Jeddah.[5] The tomb was sealed with concrete by religious authorities in 1975 due to some Muslims praying at the site.

Ibn Battuta(1304–1368), the Berber traveler, visited Jeddah during his world trip. He wrote the name of the city into his diary as "Jiddah".[6]

The British Foreign Office and other branches of the British government used the older spelling of "Jedda", contrary to other English-speaking usage, but in 2007 changed to the spelling "Jeddah".[7]

T. E. Lawrence felt that any transcription of Arabic names into English was arbitrary. In his book Revolt in the Desert, Jeddah is spelled three different ways on the first page alone.[8]

On official Saudi maps and documents, the city name is transcribed "Jeddah", which is now the prevailing usage.

History[edit]

Jeddah, mid-1800s
Jeddah in 1938

Pre-Islam[edit]

Excavations in the old city suggest that Jeddah was founded as a fishing hamlet in 522 BC by the Yemeni Quda'a tribe (بني قضاعة), who left central Yemen to settle in Makkah[9] after the destruction of the Marib Dam in Yemen.[10]

Other archaeological studies have shown that the area was settled earlier by people in the Stone Age, as some Thamudi scripts were excavated in Wadi Briman (وادي بريمان), west of the city, and Wadi Boweb (وادي بويب), northwest of the city.

Rashidun Caliphate[edit]

Jeddah first achieved prominence around 647 AD, when the third Muslim Caliph, Uthman Ibn Affan (عثمان بن عفان), turned it into a port making it the port of Makkah instead of Al Shoaiba port south west of Mecca.[11] Since then, Jeddah has been established as the main city of the historic Hijaz province and a historic port for pilgrims arriving by sea to perform their Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca.

Fatimid Caliphate[edit]

In the 969 AD, the Fatimids from Algeria took control in Egypt from the Ikhshidid dynasty and expanded their empire to the surrounding regions, including The Hijaz and Jeddah. The Fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean through the Red Sea. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty, which eventually determined the economic course of Tihamah during the High Middle Ages.

Ayyubid Empire[edit]

After Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem, in 1171 he proclaimed himself sultan of Egypt, after dissolving the Fatimid Caliphate upon the death of al-Adid, thus establishing the Ayyubid dynasty. Ayyubid conquests in Hejaz included Jeddah, which joined the Ayyubid Empire in 1177 during the leadership of Sharif Ibn Abul-Hashim Al-Thalab (1094–1201). During their relatively short-lived tenure, the Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled and the facilities and patronage provided by the Ayyubids led to a resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world. This period was also marked by an Ayyubid process of vigorously strengthening Sunni Muslim dominance in the region by constructing numerous madrasas (Islamic schools) in their major cities. Jeddah attracted Muslim sailors and merchants from Sindh, Southeast Asia and East Africa, and other distant regions.

Mamluk Sultanate[edit]

In 1254, following events in Cairo and the dissolution of the Ayyubid Empire, Hijaz became a part of the Mamluk Sultanate. The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, having found his way around the Cape and obtained pilots from the coast of Zanzibar in 1497 CE, pushed his way across the Indian Ocean to the shores of Malabar and Calicut, attacked fleets that carried freight and Muslim pilgrims from India to the Red Sea, and struck terror into the surrounding potentates. The Princes of Gujarat and Yemen turned for help to Egypt. Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri accordingly fitted out a fleet of 50 vessels under his Admiral, Hussein the Kurd. Jeddah was soon fortified with a stone wall, using forced labor, as a harbor of refuge from the Portuguese, allowing Arabia and the Red Sea to be protected. Parts of the city wall still survive today in the old city. Even though the Portuguese were successfully repelled from the city, fleets in the Indian Ocean were at their mercy. This was evidenced by the Battle of Diu between the Portuguese and the Arab Mamluks. The Portuguese soldiers' cemetery can still be found within the old city today and is referred to as the site of the Christian Graves.[12]

Ottoman Empire[edit]

Hejaz Vilayet

The Ottoman admiral Selman Reis defended Jeddah against a Portuguese attack in 1517.

In 1517, the Ottoman Turks conquered the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt and Syria, during the reign of Selim I.[13] As territories of the Mamluk Sultanate, the Hijaz, including Jeddah and the holy city of Mecca, passed into Ottoman possession. The Ottomans rebuilt the weak walls of Jeddah in 1525 following their victory over the Lopo Soares de Albergaria's Armada in the Red Sea. The new Turkish wall included six watchtowers and six city gates. They were constructed to defend against the Portuguese attack. Of the six gates, the Gate of Mecca was the eastern gate and the Gate of Al-Magharibah, facing the port, was the western gate. The Gate of Sharif faced south. The other gates were the Gate of Al-Bunt, Gate of Al-Sham (also called Gate of Al-Sharaf) and Gate of Medina, facing north.[14] The Turks also built The Qishla of Jeddah, a small castle for the city soldiers. In the 19th century these seven gates were minimized into four giant gates with four towers. These giant gates were the Gate of Sham to the north, the Gate of Mecca to the east, the Gate of Sharif to the south, and the Gate of Al-Magharibah on the sea side.

Ahmed Al-Jazzar, the Ottoman military man mainly known for his role in the Siege of Acre, spent the earlier part of his career at Jeddah. In Jeddah in 1750, he killed some seventy rioting nomads in retaliation for the killing of his commander, Abdullah Beg, earning him the nickname "Jezzar" (butcher).

First Saudi State and Ottoman–Saudi War[edit]

Main article: Ottoman-Saudi War

In 1802, Nejdi forces conquered both Mecca and Jeddah from the Ottomans. When Sharif Ghalib Efendi informed Sultan Mahmud II of this, the Sultan ordered his Egyptian viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha to retake the city. Muhammad Ali successfully regained the city in the Battle of Jeddah in 1813.

World War I and the Hashemite Kingdom[edit]

Mohammed Abu Zenada, one of the Chiefs of Jeddah and the advisor to the Sharif during the surrender to King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud in 1925
Main articles: Arab Revolt and Kingdom of Hejaz

During World War I, Sharif Hussein bin Ali declared a revolt against the Ottoman Empire, seeking independence from the Ottoman Turks and the creation of a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.

King Hussein declared the Kingdom of Hejaz. Later, Hussein was involved in war with Ibn Saud, who was the Sultan of Nejd. Hussein resigned following the fall of Mecca, in December 1924, and his son Ali bin Hussein became the new king.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia[edit]

King Abdulaziz sitting with Abdullah Ali Reda on the day he entered Jeddah in 1925

A few months later, Ibn Saud, whose clan originated in the central Nejd province, conquered Medina and Jeddah via an agreement with Jeddans following the Second Battle of Jeddah. He deposed Ali bin Hussein, who fled to Baghdad, eventually settling in Amman, Jordan, where his descendants became part of its Hashemite royalty.

As a result, Jeddah came under the sway of the Al-Saud dynasty in December 1925. In 1926, Ibn Saud added the title King of Hejaz to his position of Sultan of Nejd. Today, Jeddah has lost its historical role in peninsular politics after Jeddah fell within the new province of Makkah, whose provincial capital is the city of Mecca.

From 1928 to 1932, the new Khuzam Palace was built as the new residence of King Abdul Aziz in Jeddah. The palace lies south of the old walled city and was constructed under the supervision of the engineer Muhammad bin Laden. After 1963, the palace was used as a royal guest house; since 1995, it has housed the Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography.[15]

The remaining walls and gates of the old city were demolished in 1947. A fire in 1982 destroyed some ancient buildings in the old town center, called Al-Balad, but much is still preserved despite the commercial interest to tear down old houses (Naseef House, Gabil House) and build modern high-rise buildings. A house-by-house survey of the old districts was made in 1979, showing that some 1000 traditional buildings still existed, though the number of structures with great historic value was far less. In 1990, a Jeddah Historical Area Preservation Department was founded.[16][17]

The modern city has expanded wildly beyond its old boundaries. The built-up area expanded mainly to the north along the Red Sea coastline, reaching the new airport during the 1990s and since edging its way around it toward the Ob'hur Creek, some 27 km (17 mi) from the old city center.

Geography[edit]

Map of Jeddah as of 2009.

Jeddah is located in Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coastal plain (called Tihamah). Jeddah lies in the Hijazi Tihama (Arabic: تهامة الحجاز) region which is in the lower Hijaz mountains. Historically, politically and culturally, Jeddah was a major city of Hejaz Vilayet, the Kingdom of Hejaz and other regional political entities according to Hijazi history books.

Climate[edit]

Jeddah features an arid climate (BWh) under Koppen's climate classification. Unlike other Saudi Arabian cities, Jeddah retains its warm temperature in winter, which can range from 15 °C (59 °F) at dawn to 28 °C (82 °F) in the afternoon. Summer temperatures are extremely hot, often breaking the 43 °C (109 °F) mark in the afternoon and dropping to 30 °C (86 °F) in the evening. Rainfall in Jeddah is generally sparse, and usually occurs in small amounts in November and December. Heavy thunderstorms are common in winter. The thunderstorm of December 2008 was the largest in recent memory, with rain reaching around 3 inches (7.6 cm). The lowest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah was 11.0 °C (51.8 °F) in March 1983.[18] The highest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah was 49.0 °C (120.2 °F) on June 9, 1961.[18]

Dust storms happen in summer and sometimes in winter, coming from the Arabian Peninsula's deserts or from North Africa.

Climate data for Jeddah
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.5
(94.1)
36.0
(96.8)
40.2
(104.4)
44.5
(112.1)
48.2
(118.8)
49.0
(120.2)
45.0
(113)
44.0
(111.2)
48.0
(118.4)
44.5
(112.1)
39.0
(102.2)
36.0
(96.8)
49
(120.2)
Average high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
28.8
(83.8)
31.1
(88)
33.4
(92.1)
35.4
(95.7)
36.9
(98.4)
37.6
(99.7)
37.2
(99)
36.1
(97)
35.0
(95)
32.3
(90.1)
29.8
(85.6)
33.55
(92.38)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.0
(77)
23.5
(74.3)
25.1
(77.2)
27.6
(81.7)
29.6
(85.3)
30.3
(86.5)
32.4
(90.3)
32.1
(89.8)
30.7
(87.3)
29.1
(84.4)
27.0
(80.6)
24.7
(76.5)
28.09
(82.57)
Average low °C (°F) 21.0
(69.8)
18.4
(65.1)
20.1
(68.2)
22.1
(71.8)
24.1
(75.4)
24.9
(76.8)
26.3
(79.3)
27.1
(80.8)
25.9
(78.6)
23.8
(74.8)
22.2
(72)
19.9
(67.8)
22.98
(73.37)
Record low °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
11.5
(52.7)
11.0
(51.8)
13.5
(56.3)
16.4
(61.5)
20.0
(68)
20.5
(68.9)
22.0
(71.6)
17.0
(62.6)
15.6
(60.1)
15.0
(59)
11.4
(52.5)
11
(51.8)
Rainfall mm (inches) 13.9
(0.547)
5.6
(0.22)
1
(0.04)
5.1
(0.201)
1.5
(0.059)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.008)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2.4
(0.094)
11.9
(0.469)
11.9
(0.469)
53.5
(2.107)
 % humidity 73 61 60 60 60 61 57 62 69 67 64 59 62.8
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)[18]

Economy[edit]

Mall of Arabia is the largest shopping mall in Jeddah.
Al-Andalus Mall in Jeddah.

Jeddah has long been a port city. Even before being designated the port city for Mecca, Jeddah was a trading hub for the region. In the 19th century, goods such as mother-of-pearl, tortoise shells, frankincense, and spices were routinely exported from the city. Apart from this, many imports into the city were destined for further transit to the Suez, Africa, or Europe. Many goods passing through Jeddah could not even be found in the city or even in Arabia.[19]

All of the capitals of the Middle East and North Africa are within two hours flying distance of Jeddah, making it the second commercial center of the Middle East after Dubai.[20]

Also, Jeddah's industrial district is the fourth largest industrial city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh, Jubail and Yanbu.

King Abdullah Street[edit]

King Abdullah Street is one of the most important streets in Jeddah and runs from King Fahd Road by the waterfront in the west of Jeddah to the eastern end of the city. It is famous for hosting numerous corporate offices and commercial developments.

Tahaliyah Street[edit]

Main article: Tahlia Street

Tahaliyah Street is an important fashion and shopping street in central Jeddah. It contains many upscale department stores and boutiques. It has been renamed "Prince Mohammad bin Abdul Aziz Road".

Culture[edit]

Religious significance[edit]

A woman from Jeddah in traditional clothing, 1873.

Most citizens are Sunni Muslims. The government, courts and civil and criminal laws enforce a moral code established by Shari'ah. A very small minority of Saudi citizens are Shia Muslims, and there is also a large foreign workforce which is forbidden to follow their non-Islamic religions even privately, but this is little enforced.

The city has over 1,300 mosques.[21] The law does not allow other religions' buildings, books, icons and expressions of faith. However, private religious observance not involving Muslims nor offending public order and morality is sometimes tolerated.

Since the 7th century, Jeddah has hosted millions of Muslim pilgrims from all over the world on their way to Hajj. This merge with pilgrims has a major impact on the society, religion, and economy of Jeddah. It also brings an annual risk of illness, known by locals as the 'hajji disease', a general term for various viral maladies.

Cultural projects and foundations with a branch in Jeddah[edit]

  • Encyclopaedia of Makkah and Madinah
  • Saqifat al-Safa Trust

Cuisine[edit]

Saudi Kabsa

Jeddah's multi-ethnic citizenry has influenced Jeddah's traditional cuisine.

As in other Saudi cities, the Nejdi dish Kabsa is popular among the people of Jeddah, often made with chicken instead of lamb meat. The Yemeni dish Mandi is also popular as a lunch meal. Jeddah cuisine is popular as well and dishes like Mabshoor, Mitabbak, Foul, Areika, Hareisa, Kabab Meiroo, Shorabah Hareira (Hareira soup), Migalgal, Madhbi (chicken grilled on stone), Madfun (literally meaning "buried"), Magloobah, Kibdah, Manzalah (usually eaten at Eid ul-Fitr), Ma'asoob, Magliya (a local version of falafel), Saleeig (a local dish made of milk rice), hummus, Biryani, Ruz Kabli, Ruz Bukhari, and Saiyadyia can be acquired in many traditional restaurants around the city, such as Althamrat, Abo-Zaid, Al-Quarmooshi, Ayaz, and Hejaziyat.

Grilled meat dishes such as shawarma, kofta and kebab have a good market in Jeddah. During Ramadan, sambousak and ful are especially popular at the evening iftar meal. These dishes are found in Lebanese, Syrian, and Turkish restaurants.

The most popular local fast food chain, begun in 1986, is Al Baik, with branches in Jeddah and the neighbouring cities of Makkah, Madinah and Yanbu. Their main dish is broasted (broiled and roasted) chicken, commonly known by Jeddans as "Brost", and a variety of seafood.[22] Other local fast food restaurants have sprung up, like Al Tazaj, which serves seasoned grilled chicken (called Farooj) and a side of Tahina with onion and spices. Foultameez serves Foul and Tameez as fast food; Kudu and Herfy serve Western fast food; Halawani serves local variants of Shawerma; and Shawermatak has pioneered drive-through sales of Shawerma. Another popular fast-food chain is Hot and Crispy, an Arabic franchise popular for their spiced curly fries.

Indian, Pakistani and other Asian foods are also popular. Italian, French and American restaurants (such as McDonald's, Burger King, Domino's Pizza, KFC, Fuddruckers and Chili's) are also to be found.

Open-air art[edit]

The Bicycle Roundabout is a cycle sculpture and is one of the most famous landmarks in Jeddah.

During the oil boom in the late 1970s and 1980s, there was a focused civic effort to bring art to Jeddah's public areas. As a result, Jeddah contains a large number of modern open-air sculptures and works of art, typically situated in roundabouts, making the city one of the largest open-air art galleries in the world. Sculptures include works by Jean/Hans Arp, César Baldaccini, Alexander Calder, Henry Moore, Joan Miró and Victor Vasarely. They often depict traditional Saudi items such as coffee pots, incense burners, palm trees, etc. The fact that Islamic tradition prohibits the depiction of living creatures, notably the human form, has made for some very creative, as well as bizarre, modern art. These include a giant geometry set, a giant bicycle, and a huge block of concrete with several cars protruding from it at odd angles. A monumental sculpture by Aref Rayess is devoted to Allah (God).

Museums and collections[edit]

There are about a dozen museums or collections in Jeddah, with varied educational aims and professionalism.[23] These include the Jeddah Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography run by the Deputy Ministry of Antiquities and Museums, the Jeddah Municipal Museum, the Nasseef House, the Humane Heritage Museum, the private Abdul Rauf Hasan Khalil Museum and the private Arts Heritage Museum.

Media[edit]

The Jeddah TV Tower in Al-Balad.

Jeddah is served by four major Arabic-language newspapers, Asharq Al-Awsat, Al Madina, Okaz, and Al Bilad, as well as two major English-language newspapers, the Saudi Gazette and Arab News. Okaz and Al-Madina are the primary newspapers of Jeddah and some other Saudi cities, with over a million readers; their focus is mainly local.

Jeddah represents the largest radio and television market in Saudi Arabia. Television stations serving the city area include Saudi TV1, Saudi TV2, Saudi TV Sports, Al Ekhbariya, the ART channels network and hundreds of cable, satellite and other specialty television providers.

The Jeddah TV Tower is a 250 m (820 ft) high television tower with an observation deck.

Sport[edit]

King Abdullah Stadium at King Abdullah Sports City.

Football[edit]

Jeddah hosts the oldest sport clubs in Saudi Arabia. Football is the most popular sport in Jeddah. Al-Ittihad and Al-Ahli are well-known football clubs. They are major competitors in both the Saudi Premier League and the AFC Champions League.

Al-Ittihad was the first club in the country, established in 1927. Fans endowed Al-Ittihad with the nickname of "Tigers," showing the team's strength. Al-Ahli was established in 1937, and used to be called the royal club. The other club's nickname is "Alrage" which means "Upscale".

There are several public football stadiums in Jeddah:

Jeddah is the home of Saudi Arabia's leading rugby club, which was founded in 1979, mainly run by expats. The club competes in regional and international matches and now includes local players. Recently, there has been more interest from Saudi nationals.

Motor-sports[edit]

See also: Jeddah Raceway

Motor-sports are popular in Jeddah. Jeddah Raceway was built near King Abdulaziz International Airport in 2009 and weekend races are regularly held there. It was also built to reduce street racing in the city which caused many fatal accidents. An Annual Jeddah Desert Rally is also held outside the city of Jeddah.

Scuba diving[edit]

Scuba Diving is mainly popular among tourists. Many coastal resorts offer shore diving. Boat diving is coordinated by registered dive operators.[24]

Accent[edit]

Main article: Hejazi Arabic

The Jeddah region's distinctive speech pattern is called the Hejazi dialect; it is among the most recognizable accents within the Arabic language.

Cityscape[edit]

Skyline of Al-Balad (Jeddah Downtown)

Old Jeddah[edit]

Main article: Al-Balad, Jeddah

The Old City with its traditional multistory buildings and merchant houses has lost ground to more modern developments. Nonetheless, the Old City contributes to Saudi cultural identity, preserving traditional buildings

Resorts and hotels[edit]

Jeddah Rosewood Hotel (on left) and Skyline

The city has many popular resorts, including Durrat Al-Arus, Al-Nawras Mövenpick resort at the Red Sea Corniche, Crystal Resort, Radisson Blu, The Signature Al Murjan Beach Resort, Al Nakheel Village, Sands, and Sheraton Abhur. Many are renowned for their preserved Red Sea marine life and offshore coral reefs.

Consulates[edit]

One of three consulates of the United States of America in Saudi Arabia is located in Jeddah, along with consulates for 67 other countries such as Afghanistan, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, France, Germany, Greece, Turkey, Philippines, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Italy, Russia and People's Republic of China, as well as countries of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Arab League states.

Landmarks[edit]

King Fahd's Fountain

Main article: King Fahd's Fountain

King Fahd's Fountain was built in the 1980s, can be seen from a great distance and, at 312 metres (1,024 ft), is the highest water jet in the world according to the Guinness World Records.[25] The fountain was donated to the City of Jeddah by the late King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, after whom it was named.

NCB Tower

Built in 1983 and believed to be the highest tower in Saudi Arabia during the 1980s, with a height of over 235 m (771 ft), the National Commercial Bank was Saudi Arabia's first bank.

IDB Tower

The Islamic Development Bank is a multilateral development financing institution. It was founded by the first conference of Finance Ministers of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), convened 18 December 1973. The bank officially began its activities on 20 October 1975.

Jeddah Municipality Tower

Main article: Jeddah Municipality

This is the headquarters of the metropolitan area of Jeddah. The municipality's new building is one of Jeddah's tallest.

Kingdom Tower

Main article: Kingdom Tower
Kingdom Tower will become the tallest structure in the world upon its completion in 2019

This proposed tower is to be built in Jeddah by Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal and will stand 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) tall. Upon its completion, it will be the tallest skyscraper in the world. The building has been scaled down from its initial 1.6 km (1 mi) proposal, since the ground proved unsuitable for a building that tall, to a height of at least 1,000 metres (3,280.84 ft) (the exact height is being kept private while in development, similar to the Burj Khalifa),[26] which, at about one kilometre (0.62 miles), would still make it by far the tallest building or structure in the world to date,[27] standing at least 173 m (568 ft) taller than the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.[28]

King Road Tower

Main article: King Road Tower

King Road Tower is a commercial and office building, the external walls of which are used to show commercials. The building also has a helipad on its roof. King Road Tower has the largest LED display in the world on its walls.

Al Jawharah Tower[edit]

Main article: Al Jawharah Tower

Al Jawharah Tower is a residential high-rise under construction. It will be the third-tallest structure in Jeddah once completed in 2014.

Jeddah Flagpole[edit]

See also: Jeddah Flagpole

The King Abdullah Square on the intersection of Andalus Road with King Abdullah Road has the world's tallest flagpole. It is 170 meters high and the Saudi flag atop it weighs 570 kilograms. On the 84th Saudi National Day, September 23, 2014, the flagpole hoisted a huge Saudi flag before a crowd of thousands. The flagpole succeeded Dushanbe Flagpole & is currently the tallest flagpole in the world.[29]

Education[edit]

Schools, colleges and universities[edit]

As of 2005, Jeddah had 849 public and private schools for male students and another 1,179 public and private schools for female students.[30] The medium of instruction in both public and private schools is typically Arabic, with emphasis on English as a second language. However, some private schools administered by foreign entities conduct classes in English.

Jeddah's universities and colleges include the following:

Laboratories at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
Medicine College at King Abdulaziz University

Jeddah is also home to several primary, intermediate and secondary schools such as:

Libraries[edit]

King Abdul Aziz Public Library is a philanthropic institution which was founded and supported by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz, Chairman of its Board of Directors. Established in 1985, the library was officially opened by the King on 27 February 1987. It emphasises Islamic and Arabic heritage and history of the Kingdom. The library is divided into three branches (men's, women's, and children's).[31]

The limited number of libraries is criticized by the public. As a result, King Abdullah, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, has approved the King Abdullah Project for the Development of Public Libraries, and approximately SAR150 million is budgeted to be spent.[32]

Transport[edit]

King Abdulaziz International Airport
Jeddah Seaport
King Abdullah Street

Airport[edit]

Jeddah is served by King Abdulaziz International Airport. The airport has four passenger terminals. One is the Hajj Terminal, a special outdoor terminal covered by large white tents, which was constructed to handle the more than two million pilgrims who pass through the airport during the Hajj season. The Southern Terminal is used for Saudia flights, while the Northern Terminal serves foreign and other national airlines. A plan for the extension of airport is being developed. The Royal Terminal is a special terminal reserved for VIPs, foreign kings and presidents, and the Saudi Royal Family. A portion of the airport, King Abdullah Air Base, was used by Coalition B-52 heavy bombers during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

Seaport[edit]

Main article: Jeddah Seaport

The Jeddah Seaport is the 32nd busiest seaport in the world as of 2008. It handles the majority of Saudi Arabia's commercial movement.

Roads and rails[edit]

Highway 40, which begins in Jeddah, connects the city to Mecca, Riyadh and Dammam on the east coast. Jeddah does not have any rapid transit system, but a rail system connecting the city to Riyadh is now under construction. The Haramain High Speed Rail Project will provide a connection to Mecca and Medina.[33] Jeddah's main highways run parallel to each other.

Issues and challenges[edit]

The city is challenged by pollution, terrorism, weak sewage systems, heavy traffic, epidemics, water shortages and pollution.

Pollution and environment
Air pollution is a problem for Jeddah, particularly on hot summer days. The city has experienced bush fires, landfill fires, and pollution from the two industrial zones in the north and the south of the metropolitan area. A water treatment factory and the seaport also contribute to water pollution. Much of the seafront, however, is considered to be safe and clean.

Terrorism
On 6 December 2004, a group of five men associated with the terrorist group Al-Qaeda (Al-Qaeda Organization in the Arabian Peninsula) conducted a daring, mid-day attack on the U.S. Consulate, which killed five Consulate workers. The group was led by Fayez ibn Awwad Al-Jeheni, a former member of Saudi religious police. Two other assailants were subsequently identified by the Saudi authorities as residents of Jeddah's Al-Jamia suburb and other slums on Saudi Arabia's increasingly urbanised west coast. Buildings were attacked, hostages taken and used as human shields, and the U.S. and non-U.S. staff were under siege, although the chancery/consular section building itself was never penetrated.[34] Closed circuit video feeds documented that the Saudi security personnel assigned to protect the facility fled when the vehicle holding the terrorists pulled up to the front gate and ran past the Delta barrier.[35] Inside the compound, however, an armed Saudi security guard employed by the embassy shot and killed one terrorist before being fatally shot himself.

The attackers spread and ignited a flammable liquid on the front of the chancery building, and opened fire on the front doors, both of which actions did not have any penetrating effect. The Consulate's U.S. Marines released tear gas in front of the chancery building, but the terrorists had already left that location. More than an hour later, Saudi special forces made it through traffic and, along with others from their unit who arrived in a helicopter, fought to retake the compound. Two of the terrorists were killed in the final fight, with another dying later in hospital and the final militant being captured alive. Four Saudi special forces and a further 10 hostages were wounded in the crossfire.[34][36][37]

The five Foreign Service National employees who died during the terrorist attack were Ali Yaslem Bin Talib, Imad e-Deen Musa Ali, Romeo de la Rosa, Mohammed Baheer Uddin and Jaufar Sadik. The casualties came from Yemen, Sudan, Philippines, India and Sri Lanka.[38]

The attack underscores the ongoing vulnerabilities of Westerners to threats and terrorist actions in Jeddah and environs. In a communiqué posted in online publications such as Sawt al-Jihad (Voice of Jihad) and Mu'askar al-Battar (Al-Battar Training Camp), Al-Qaeda hinted at the symbolic nature of the U.S. Consulate attack, stating: "Know that the Mujahideen are determined to continue on their path, and they will not be weakened by what has happened to them."[34]

Terrorist activities have persisted from 2004 to the present day. In 2004 there was an unsuccessful shooting attack on a US Marine visiting the Saudi American Bank and an attempt to simultaneously explode car bombs at Saudi American Bank and Saudi British Bank branches in Jeddah on the anniversary of the 2001 "9-11" terrorist attacks on the U.S.[39] On 26 August 2012, a spokesman for the Interior Ministry announced that terrorists were arrested in Jeddah who had been preparing explosives for attacks within the kingdom.[40]

Traffic
Roads and highways within and exiting the city are frequently clogged with traffic. Mass transit is rare and planning is nascent; most Jeddawi adults have at least one car. Motorcycles are rare on the roads, further impacting the traffic patterns. Days immediately preceding and following the holy days are particularly noisome and cost hundreds of thousands many hours because of traffic jams. The Saudi Gazette reports that there is a plan in the works to tackle the traffic issue. A reported 3 billion Saudi Riyals will be put into constructing flyovers and underpasses in an effort to expedite traffic. The plan is scheduled to take about five years from its start to finish.[41]

Sewage
Prior to the construction of a waste treatment plant, Jeddah's waste water was disposed of by either discharge into the sea or via absorption into deep underground pits. As the city grew, a proper waste management plant was created and the built up part of the city was connected with a sewer system by the 1970s.[citation needed] However, even with the ever increasing population, the original sewer system has hardly been expanded. The original plant cannot cope with the amount of waste inundating it daily. As a result, some untreated sewage is discharged directly into the sea and the entire northern part of the city remains completely unconnected to the sewage system, instead relying on septic tanks. This has been responsible for the large number of sewage tankers.

In late 2011, a storm drainage system was built in the south Jeddah area (similar to that of the Los Angeles storm drain) to reduce the risk of floods.[42]

2009 Jeddah floods[edit]

A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2009 floods.
Main article: 2009 Jeddah floods

On 25 November 2009, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of Makkah Province.[43][44] The floods were described by civil defence officials as the worst in 27 years.[45] As of 26 November 2009, 77 people were reported to have been killed,[46] and more than 350 were missing.[43] Some roads were under a metre (three feet) of water on 26 November, and many of the victims were believed to have drowned in their cars. At least 3,000 vehicles were swept away or damaged.[43][46][47] The death toll was expected to rise as flood waters receded, allowing rescuers to reach stranded vehicles.[48]

A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2011 floods.

2011 Jeddah floods[edit]

On 26 January 2011, again, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of Makkah Province. The cumulative rainfall exceeded the 90 mm (3.5 in) recorded in four hours during the 25 November 2009 flash floods. Streets including Palestine Street, Madinah Road and Wali Al-Ahad Street were either flooded or jammed with traffic. Cars were seen floating in some places. Meanwhile, eyewitnesses told local newspaper Arab News that East Jeddah was swamped and floodwater was rushing west towards the Red Sea, turning streets into rivers once again.

Districts[edit]

Metropolitan Jeddah comprises 137 districts: (transliterated from Arabic)

  1. Al-Murjan
  2. Al-Basateen
  3. Al-Mohamadiya
  4. Ash-Shati
  5. An-Nahda
  6. An-Naeem
  7. An-Nozha
  8. Az-Zahraa
  9. As-Salamah
  10. Al-Bawadi
  11. Ar-Rabwa
  12. As-Safa
  13. Al-Khalidiya
  14. Ar-Rawdha
  15. Al-Faysaliya
  16. Al-Andalus
  17. Al-Aziziya
  18. Ar-Rihab
  19. Al-Hamraa
  20. Al-Mosharafa
  21. Ar-Roweis
  22. Ash-Sharafiya
  23. Bani Malik
  24. Al-Woroud
  25. An-Naseem
  26. Al-Baghdadiya Ash-Sharqiya
  27. Al-Amariya
  28. Al-Hindawiya
  29. As-Saheifa
  30. Al-Kandra
  31. As-Sulaimaniya
  32. Al-Thaalba
  33. As-Sabeel
  34. Al-Qurayat
  35. Gholail
  36. An-Nozla Al-Yamaniya
  37. Al-Nozla Ash-Sharqiya
  38. Al-Taghr
  39. Al-Jamaa
  40. Madayin Al-Fahad
  41. Ar-Rawabi
  42. Al-Wazeeriya
  43. Petromin
  44. Al-Mahjar
  45. Prince Abdel Majeed
  46. Obhour Al-Janobiya
  47. Al-Marwa
  48. AL-Fayhaa
  49. King Abdul Al-Aziz University
  50. Al-Baghdadiya Al-Gharbiya
  51. Al-Balad
  52. Al-Ajwad
  53. Al-Manar
  54. As-Samer
  55. Abruq Ar-Roghama
  56. Madinat As-Sultan
  57. Um Hablain
  58. Al-Hamdaniya
  59. Al-Salhiya
  60. Mokhatat Al-Aziziya
  61. Mokhatat Shamal Al-Matar
  62. Mokhatat Ar-Riyadh
  63. Mokhatat Al-Huda
  64. Braiman
  65. Al-Salam
  66. Al-Mostawdaat
  67. Al-Montazahat
  68. Kilo 14
  69. Al-Harazat
  70. Um As-Salam
  71. Mokhtat Zahrat Ash-Shamal
  72. Al-Majid
  73. Gowieza
  74. Al-Gozain
  75. Al-Kuwait
  76. Al-Mahrogat
  77. Al-Masfa
  78. Al-Matar Al-Gadeem (old airport)
  79. Al-Bokhariya
  80. An-Nour
  81. Bab Shareif
  82. Bab Makkah
  83. Bahra
  84. Al-Amir Fawaz
  85. Wadi Fatma
  86. Obhour Shamaliya
  87. At-Tarhil (deportation)
  88. Al-Iskan Al-janoubi
  89. At-Tawfeeq
  90. Al-Goaid
  91. Al-Jawhara
  92. Al-Jamoum
  93. Al-Khumra
  94. Ad-Difaa Al-Jawi (Air Defense)
  95. Ad-Dageeg
  96. Ar-Robou
  97. Ar-Rabie
  98. Ar-Rehaily
  99. As-Salmiya
  100. As-Sanabil
  101. As-Sinaiya (Bawadi)
  102. Industrial City (Mahjar)
  103. Al-Adl
  104. Al-Olayia
  105. Al-Faihaa
  106. Al-Karanteena
  107. Al-Ajaweed
  108. Al-Ahmadiya
  109. Al-Mosadiya
  110. East Al-Khat As-Sarei
  111. Kilo 10
  112. King Faisal Navy Base
  113. Kilo 7
  114. Kilo 45
  115. King Faisal Guard City
  116. Kilo 11
  117. Thowal
  118. Kilo 13
  119. Al-Makarona
  120. Al-Layth
  121. Al-Gonfoda
  122. Rabegh
  123. Kilo 8
  124. Kilo 5
  125. Kilo 2
  126. Al-Mokhwa
  127. National Guard Residence
  128. As-Showag
  129. Air Defense Residence
  130. Al-Morsalat
  131. Ash-Shoola
  132. Al-Corniche
  133. Al-Waha
  134. Mokhatat Al-Haramain
  135. Kholais
  136. Al-Rhmanya
  137. Al-Belly

Major organizations headquartered in Jeddah[edit]

Jeddah Chamber of Commerce & Industry
Jeddah City Hall Tower

Jeddah hosts the headquarters of the following prominent organizations:

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Jeddah has 35 sister cities (or "twin towns") which are selected based on economic, cultural and political criteria.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Abu Ras promises new Jeddah". Saudigazette.com.sa. 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  2. ^ "Population". Statistical Yearbook 47 (2011). Central Department Of Statistics & Information. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  3. ^ http://ae.zawya.com/story.cfm/sidZAWYA20100727050049/comment
  4. ^ "2thinknow Innovation Cities™ Emerging 11 Index 2009 - Middle East, Africa and Former USSR States | 2009". Innovation-cities.com. 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  5. ^ Jayussi, Salma; Manṣūr Ibrāhīm Ḥāzimī; ʻIzzat ibn ʻAbd al-Majīd Khaṭṭāb Beyond the Dunes I B Tauris & Co Ltd (28 April 2006), p. 295. ISBN 978-1-85043-972-1 [1]
  6. ^ Ibn Battota's Safari. Tuhfat Al-Nothaar Fe Gharaa'ib Al-Amsaar. Chapter: "From Cairo to Hejaz to Tunisia again". ISBN 9953-34-180-X
  7. ^ British Embassy website[dead link]
  8. ^ "Lost in translation." Brian Whitaker. Guardian (UK). 10 June 2002.
  9. ^ History of Jeddah. Ministry of Hajj.
  10. ^ "صحيفة عكاظ - جدة اليوم.. والعم وهيب". Okaz.com.sa. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  11. ^ alalamonline (2010-03-10). alalamonline.net http://www.alalamonline.net/%D9%85%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B9_%D8%A8%D9%88%D8%B1%D8%AA%D9%88_%D8%B4%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%A8%D8%A9_%D8%A8%D9%85%D9%83%D9%87_%D9%8A%D8%AA%D9%83%D9%84%D9%81_%D9%85%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A_%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%B1.html. Retrieved 2013-08-13.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ صحيفة عكاظ (2012-06-05). "صحيفة عكاظ - مقبرة النصارى". Okaz.com.sa. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  13. ^ "History of Arabia." Britannica.com.
  14. ^ Makkah Gate in Jeddah. AsiaRooms.com.
  15. ^ Leaflet for Khuzam Palace Jeddah, Deputy Ministry of Antiquities & Museums
  16. ^ "Preserving Jeddah's Historic Buildings." Saudi Arabia, Winter 1999, Volume 15, Number 4. Information Office, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia.
  17. ^ The Biet Nassif in Jeddah at www.asiarooms.com
  18. ^ a b c "Climate Normals for Jeddah". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 1 February 2013. 
  19. ^ Al-Sha'afi, Muhammad (1990). Foreign Trade of Juddah: During the Ottoman Period 1840-1916. King Saud University. 
  20. ^ Commerce of Jeddah. Saudi Arabian Water & Power Forum.
  21. ^ Report about number of mosques. Al-Sharq Al-Awsat Newspaper.
  22. ^ "Al Baik fast food". Albaik.com. Retrieved 2011-04-17. [dead link]
  23. ^ Museums in Jeddah at www.asiarooms.com
  24. ^ http://www.scubatravel.co.uk/redsea/saudiop.html
  25. ^ Photograph of King Fahd Fountain at treklens.com
  26. ^ Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Abbas, Maher (3 August 2011). "Kingdom Holding to build world’s tallest tower in Jeddah". Arab News. Retrieved 10 August 2011. [dead link]
  27. ^ AFP (13 March 2008). "Saudi mile-high tower plan raises bar". The Australian. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  28. ^ "Kingdom Tower: Tallest of the tall". The Chicago Tribune. 2 August 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  29. ^ Saudi Gazette, "Saudi flag flies high on world’s tallest flagpole", Saudi Gazette, 2014-06-01
  30. ^ Statistical summary of education in Saudi Arabia. Statistical Information Department of the Ministry of Education.
  31. ^ "King Abdul Aziz Library". Kapl.org.sa. 1987-02-27. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  32. ^ Saudi Gazette. "King gives the go-ahead to develop public libraries". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  33. ^ "Al Rajhi wins Makkah - Madinah civils contract". Railway Gazette International. 2009-02-09. 
  34. ^ a b c http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/jtic-briefing-jeddah-attack-underscores-fall-in-capabilities-of-saudi-milit
  35. ^ http://diplopundit.net/2013/04/16/2005-jeddah-arb-recommended-remote-safe-areas-for-embassies-upgrades-coming-or-maybe-not/
  36. ^ http://www.rasheedsworld.com/wp/2005/12/1st-anniversary-of-attack-on-us-consulate/
  37. ^ http://www.nbcnews.com/id/6657943/ns/world_news/t/saudi-cleric-condemns-us-consulate-attack/#.VCUIZv2HtG8
  38. ^ http://diplopundit.net/tag/terror-attack-on-u-s-consulate-jeddah/
  39. ^ http://susris.com/timelines/terrorism-saudi-arabia/
  40. ^ "LexisNexis News". LexisNexis. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  41. ^ Al-Siqqiqui, Saoud. "SR3b to tackle Jeddah traffic over five years". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 11 April 2011. 
  42. ^ Vincent, Peter. "Jeddah's Environmental Problems". The Geographical Review. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2003.tb00039.x. 
  43. ^ a b c "Saudi Arabian floods kill 77, leave scores missing". Agence France Presse. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  44. ^ "Saudi Arabia floods leave 48 dead". BBC News. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  45. ^ "Flooding kills 77 in Jeddah, Thousands of pilgrims stranded on highway". Saudi Gazette. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-26  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  46. ^ a b Alawi, Ibrahim; Al-Harthi, Eid (27 November 2009). "King orders aid for victims, Death toll in Jeddah flooding hits 77". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 2009-11-27 
  47. ^ Al-Zahrani, Saleh (26 November 2009). "Damage may top SR1 billion". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 2009-11-27 
  48. ^ Humaidan, Muhammad (27 November 2009). "Jeddah flood death toll reaches 77". Arab News. Retrieved 2009-11-27 
  49. ^ Burak Sansal (2006-11-20). "Sister cities of Istanbul". Greatistanbul.com. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  50. ^ "Sister cities of Taipei". Protocol.taipei.gov.tw. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 

References[edit]

  • Farsi, Hani M.S. (Mohamed Said). Jeddah: city of art: the sculptures and monuments. London: Stacey International, 1991. ISBN 0-905743-66-0
  • Facey, William & Grant, Gillian. Saudi Arabia by the First Photographers. ISBN 0-905743-74-1
  • Tarabulsi, Mohammed Yosuf. Jeddah: A Story of a City. Riyadh: King Fahd National Library, 2006. ISBN 9960-52-413-2
  • John F. Keane. Six months in the Hejaz : journeys to Makkah and Madinah 1877-1989. Manchester: Barzan Publishing, 2006. ISBN 0-9549701-1-X
  • Al-Khaldi, Ibrahim. The Bedouin Photographer - Al-Mosawwir Al-Badawi. Kuwait, 2004.
  • Badr El-Hage. Saudi Arabia : caught in time 1861-1939. Published by Garnet, Reading, 1997. ISBN 1-85964-090-7
  • Captain G. S. Froster. A trip Across the Peninsula - Rehla Abr Al-Jazeera. Mombai, India, 1866.
  • From Bullard to Mr Chamberlain. Jeddah, 1925 Feb. (No.# secrets) - Archived Post.
  • Al-Rehani. Nejd and Its Followers.
  • Al-Turki, Thuraya. Jeddah: Um Al-Rakha wal Sheddah. Published by Dar Al-Shrooq.
  • Al-Harbi, Dalal. King Abdulaziz and his Strategies to deal with events : Events of Jeddah. King Abdulaziz National Library, 2003. ISBN 9960-624-88-9
  • Didier, Charles. Séjour Chez Le Grand-Cherif De La Mekke. Librairie De L. Hachette et, Rue Pierre.
  • Didier, Charles. Rehla Ela Al-Hejaz: A trip to Hejaz. Translated from "Séjour Chez Le Grand-Cherif De La Mekke" into Arabic. Paris, 1854. ISBN 9960-677-14-1

External links[edit]