Scorzonera

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the vegetable black salsify, see Scorzonera hispanica.
Scorzonera
Scorzonera purpurea rosea0.jpg
Scorzonera purpurea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae[1]
Genus: Scorzonera
L.
Synonyms[1]

Scorzonera is a genus of flowering plants in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family. [2][3]

They are distributed in Europe, Asia,[3] and Africa.[4] Its center of diversity is in the Mediterranean.[5] Well-known species include the edible black salsify (Scorzonera hispanica). Scorzonera tau-saghyz is a source of natural rubber.[6][7][8]

Scorzonera is recorded as a food plant for the larva of the Nutmeg, a species of moth.

Species[1][9]
  1. Scorzonera acanthoclada
  2. Scorzonera acantholimon
  3. Scorzonera acuminata
  4. Scorzonera adilii
  5. Scorzonera affinis
  6. Scorzonera alaica
  7. Scorzonera alba
  8. Scorzonera albertoregelia
  9. Scorzonera albicans
  10. Scorzonera albicaulis
  11. Scorzonera amasiana
  12. Scorzonera angustifolia
  13. Scorzonera aragatzi
  14. Scorzonera araneosa
  15. Scorzonera argyrea
  16. Scorzonera aristata
  17. Scorzonera aucheriana
  18. Scorzonera austriaca
  19. Scorzonera baetica
  20. Scorzonera baldshuanica
  21. Scorzonera biebersteinii
  22. Scorzonera boissieri
  23. Scorzonera bracteosa
  24. Scorzonera bungei
  25. Scorzonera bupleurifolia
  26. Scorzonera bupleuroides
  27. Scorzonera caespitosa
  28. Scorzonera callosa
  29. Scorzonera calyculata
  30. Scorzonera capito
  31. Scorzonera chantavica
  32. Scorzonera charadzeae
  33. Scorzonera cinerea
  34. Scorzonera circumflexa
  35. Scorzonera codringtonii
  36. Scorzonera communis
  37. Scorzonera crassifolia
  38. Scorzonera cretica
  39. Scorzonera crispa
  40. Scorzonera crocifolia
  41. Scorzonera czerepanovii
  42. Scorzonera darreana
  43. Scorzonera davisii
  44. Scorzonera divaricata
  45. Scorzonera doriae
  46. Scorzonera drarii
  47. Scorzonera dzhawakhetica
  48. Scorzonera elata
  49. Scorzonera elongata
  50. Scorzonera ensifolia
  51. Scorzonera eriophora
  52. Scorzonera euphratica
  53. Scorzonera fengtiensis
  54. Scorzonera ferganica
  55. Scorzonera filifolia
  56. Scorzonera flaccida
  57. Scorzonera franchetii
  58. Scorzonera gageoides
  59. Scorzonera glabra
  60. Scorzonera gorovanica
  61. Scorzonera gracilis
  62. Scorzonera graminifolia
  63. Scorzonera grubovii
  64. Scorzonera helodes
  65. Scorzonera hieraciifolia
  66. Scorzonera hispanica – black salsify, Spanish salsify, viper's-grass, black oyster plant
  67. Scorzonera hispida
  68. Scorzonera hissarica
  69. Scorzonera hondae
  70. Scorzonera hotanica
  71. Scorzonera humifusa
  72. Scorzonera humilis – viper's grass
  73. Scorzonera ikonnikovii
  74. Scorzonera iliensis
  75. Scorzonera inaequiscapa
  76. Scorzonera incisa
  77. Scorzonera inconspicua
  78. Scorzonera intricata
  79. Scorzonera isophylla
  80. Scorzonera ispahanica
  81. Scorzonera joharchii
  82. Scorzonera kandavanica
  83. Scorzonera karabelensis[10]
  84. Scorzonera karataviensis
  85. Scorzonera ketzkhovelii
  86. Scorzonera ketzkhowelii
  87. Scorzonera koelpinioides
  88. Scorzonera kotschyi
  89. Scorzonera kozlowskyi
  90. Scorzonera kuhistanica
  91. Scorzonera lacera
  92. Scorzonera laciniata
  93. Scorzonera lamellata
  94. Scorzonera lanata
  95. Scorzonera lasiocarpa
  96. Scorzonera latifolia
  97. Scorzonera leptophylla
  98. Scorzonera libanotica
  99. Scorzonera limnophila
  100. Scorzonera lindbergii
  101. Scorzonera lipskyi
  102. Scorzonera litwinowii
  103. Scorzonera longiana
  104. Scorzonera longifolia
  105. Scorzonera longipapposa
  106. Scorzonera luntaiensis
  107. Scorzonera luristanica
  108. Scorzonera mackmeliana
  109. Scorzonera manshurica
  110. Scorzonera mariovoensis
  111. Scorzonera microcalathia
  112. Scorzonera mirabilis
  113. Scorzonera mollis
  114. Scorzonera mongolica
  115. Scorzonera mucida
  116. Scorzonera multifida
  117. Scorzonera muriculata
  118. Scorzonera musili
  119. Scorzonera nivalis
  120. Scorzonera ovata
  121. Scorzonera pachycephala
  122. Scorzonera pamirica
  123. Scorzonera papposa
  124. Scorzonera paradoxa
  125. Scorzonera parviflora
  126. Scorzonera persepolitana
  127. Scorzonera persica
  128. Scorzonera petrovii
  129. Scorzonera phaeopappa
  130. Scorzonera pisidica
  131. Scorzonera polyclada
  132. Scorzonera praetuberosa
  133. Scorzonera pratorum
  134. Scorzonera pseudodivaricata
  135. Scorzonera psychrophila
  136. Scorzonera pubescens
  137. Scorzonera pulchra
  138. Scorzonera pygmaea
  139. Scorzonera racemosa
  140. Scorzonera raddeana
  141. Scorzonera radians
  142. Scorzonera radiata
  143. Scorzonera ramosissima
  144. Scorzonera rawii
  145. Scorzonera renzii
  146. Scorzonera reverchonii
  147. Scorzonera rigida
  148. Scorzonera rugulosa
  149. Scorzonera rumicifolia
  150. Scorzonera rupicola
  151. Scorzonera safievii
  152. Scorzonera sahnea
  153. Scorzonera sandrasica
  154. Scorzonera schweinfurthii
  155. Scorzonera scopariiformis
  156. Scorzonera scyria
  157. Scorzonera seidlitzii
  158. Scorzonera semicana
  159. Scorzonera sericea
  160. Scorzonera sericeo-lanata
  161. Scorzonera serpentinica
  162. Scorzonera sinensis
  163. Scorzonera stenocephala
  164. Scorzonera stricta
  165. Scorzonera subacaulis
  166. Scorzonera subaphylla
  167. Scorzonera suberosa
  168. Scorzonera sublanata
  169. Scorzonera syriaca
  170. Scorzonera tadshikorum
  171. Scorzonera tau-saghyz
  172. Scorzonera tenax
  173. Scorzonera tenuisecta
  174. Scorzonera tianshanensis
  175. Scorzonera tomentosa
  176. Scorzonera tortuosissima
  177. Scorzonera tragapogonoides
  178. Scorzonera transiliensis
  179. Scorzonera troodea
  180. Scorzonera tuberculata
  181. Scorzonera tuberosa
  182. Scorzonera tunicata
  183. Scorzonera turkestania
  184. Scorzonera ulrichii
  185. Scorzonera undulata
  186. Scorzonera usbekistanica
  187. Scorzonera veratrifolia
  188. Scorzonera veresczaginii
  189. Scorzonera verrucosa
  190. Scorzonera villosa
  191. Scorzonera violacea
  192. Scorzonera virgata
  193. Scorzonera wendelboi
  194. Scorzonera woronowii
  195. Scorzonera xylobasis
  196. Scorzonera yemensis
  197. Scorzonera yildirimlii[4]
formerly included

species once considered members of Scorzonera but now regarded as better suited to other genera: Avellara Crepis Epilasia Hymenonema Hypochaeris Lactuca Lasiospora Launaea Leontodon Microseris Podospermum Pterachaenia Pyrrhopappus Reichardia Scorzoneroides Sonchus Takhtajaniantha Tragopogon

Etymology[edit]

One possible origin of the genus name is the French scorzonère ("viper’s grass").[3]

Secondary metabolites[edit]

Some Scorzonera species contain lactones, including the sesquiterpene lactones known as guaianolides.[11] Flavonoids found in Scorzonera include apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin.[12] Other secondary metabolites reported from the genus include caffeoylquinic acids, coumarins, lignans, stilbenoids, and triterpenoids.[13] One unique class of stilbenoid derivative was first isolated from Scorzonera humilis. They were named the tyrolobibenzyls after Tyrol in the eastern Alps, where the plant was collected.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
  2. ^ Bremer, K. (1994). Asteraceae: Cladistics and Classification. Timber Press, Portland. ISBN 978-0881922752. 
  3. ^ a b c Scorzonera. Flora of North America.
  4. ^ a b Duran, A. and E. Hamzaoglu. (2004). A new species of Scorzonera (Asteraceae) from South Anatolia, Turkey. Biologia-Bratislava 59(1), 47-50.
  5. ^ Karaer, F. and F. Celep. (2007). Rediscovery of Scorzonera amasiana Hausskn. and Bornm. – A threatened endemic species in Turkey. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 36(2), 139-44.
  6. ^ Buranov, A. U. and B. J. Elmuradov. (2010). Extraction and characterization of latex and natural rubber from rubber-bearing plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(2), 734-43.
  7. ^ Flora of China Vol. 20-21 Page 198 鸦葱属 ya cong shu Scorzonera Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 790. 1753.
  8. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Scorzonera includes photos and distribution maps
  9. ^ "The Plant List". Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  10. ^ Parolly, G. and N. Kilian. (2003). Scorzonera karabelensis (Compositae), a new species from SW Anatolia, with a key to the subscapigerous Scorzonera species in Turkey. Willdenowia 33 327-35.
  11. ^ Zidorn, C. (2010). "Sesquiterpene lactones and their precursors as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Phytochemistry (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 69: 2270–96. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.013. ISSN 0031-9422. 
  12. ^ Sareedenchai, V. and C. Zidorn (2010). "Flavonoids as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 38: 935–57. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2009.09.006. ISSN 0305-1978. 
  13. ^ Jehle, M., et al. (2010). "Natural products from Scorzonera aristata (Asteraceae)". Natural Product Communications (Westerville, OH; USA) 5: 725–27. ISSN 1934-578X. 
  14. ^ Zidorn, C., et al. (2000). "Tyrolobibenzyls ‒ Novel secondary metabolites from Scorzonera humilis". Helvetica Chimica Acta (Zürich; Switzerland) 83: 2920–25. ISSN 0018-019X.