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|Molar mass||286.24 g mol−1|
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Luteolin can be found in Terminalia chebula. It is most often found in leaves, but it is also seen in rinds, barks, clover blossom, and ragweed pollen. It has also been isolated from Salvia tomentosa.
Dietary sources include celery, broccoli, green pepper, parsley, thyme, dandelion, perilla, chamomile tea, carrots, olive oil, peppermint, rosemary, navel oranges, and oregano. It can also be found in the seeds of the palm Aiphanes aculeata.
These enzymes are part of luteolin metabolism:
- Luteolin O-methyltransferase
- Flavone 7-O-beta-glucosyltransferase
- Luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide 4'-O-glucuronosyltransferase
- Luteolin 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase
- Isoorientin, the 6-C glucoside
- Orientin, the 8-C glucoside of luteolin
- Cynaroside, the 7-glucoside, and Luteolin-7-diglucoside found in dandelion coffee
- Veronicastroside, the 7-O-neohesperidoside
- Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide can be found in Acanthus hirsutus
Luteolin has been studied in several preliminary in vitro scientific investigations. Proposed activities include antioxidant activity (ie. scavenging of free radicals), promotion of carbohydrate metabolism, and immune system modulation. Other in vitro studies suggest luteolin has anti-inflammatory activity, and that it acts as a monoamine transporter activator, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and an interleukin 6 inhibitor. In vivo studies show luteolin affects xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice. In vitro and in vivo experiments also suggest luteolin may inhibit the development of skin cancer. Importantly, the therapeutic value of the above findings is unclear, and will remain so until further detailed in vivo, toxicity, and clinical studies are performed.
Gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypersecretion, may occur. Luteolin has also recently been found to have adverse effects in in vitro research with endometrial cancer cells.
- Mann, John (1992). Secondary Metabolism (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 279–280. ISBN 0-19-855529-6.
- A. Ulubelen, M. Miski, P. Neuman, and T. J. Mabry (1979). "Flavonoids of Salvia tomentosa (Labiatae)". Journal of Natural Products 42 (4): 261–3. doi:10.1021/np50003a002.
- Kayoko Shimoi, Hisae Okada, Michiyo Furugori, Toshinao Goda, Sachiko Takase, Masayuki Suzuki, Yukihiko Hara, Hiroyo Yamamoto, Naohide Kinae (1998). "Intestinal absorption of luteolin and luteolin 7-O-[beta]-glucoside in rats and humans". FEBS Letters 438 (3): 220–4. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01304-0. PMID 9827549.
- López-Lázaro M. (2009). "Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin". Mini Rev Med Chem. 9 (1): 31–59. doi:10.2174/138955709787001712. PMID 19149659.
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- Johnson; Kelley, KW; Johnson, RW (May 2008). "Luteolin reduces IL-6 production in microglia by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and activation of AP-1". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (21): 7534–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802865105. PMC 2396685. PMID 18490655.
- Theoharides (2009). "Luteolin as a Therapeutic Option for Multiple Sclerosis". Journal of Neuroinflammation 6 (1): 29. doi:10.1186/1742-2094-6-29. PMC 2768692. PMID 19825165.
- Zhao, G; Qin, GW; Wang, J; Chu, WJ; Guo, LH (2010). "Functional activation of monoamine transporters by luteolin and apigenin isolated from the fruit of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt". Neurochemistry international 56 (1): 168–76. doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2009.09.015. PMID 19815045.
- Yu MC, Chen JH, Lai CY, Han CY, Ko WC (February 2010). "Luteolin, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterases 1-5, displaced [3H]-rolipram from high-affinity only rolipram-binding sites and reversed xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 627 (1–3): 269–75. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.031. PMID 19853596.
- Yu, MC; Chen, JH; Lai, CY; Han, CY; Ko, WC (2010). "Luteolin, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterases 1-5, displaced 3H-rolipram from high-affinity rolipram-binding sites and reversed xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia". European Journal of Pharmacology 627 (1–3): 269–75. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.031. PMID 19853596.
- Byun, Sanguine; KW Lee, SK Jung, EJ Lee, MK Hwang,SH Lim, AM Bode, HJ Lee,Z Dong (2010). "Luteolin Inhibits Protein Kinase Cε and c-Src Activities and UVB-Induced Skin Cancer". Cancer Research 70 (6): 2415–23. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4093. PMID 20215519.
- López-Lázaro M. (2009). "Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin". Mini Rev Med Chem 9 (1): 31–59. doi:10.2174/138955709787001712. PMID 19149659.
- "Common Autism Supplement Affects Endocrine System". Science Daily. July 15, 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.