Second National Population Census of the People's Republic of China

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The Second National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (PRC), also referred to as the 1964 Chinese Census, was conducted by the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of 1 July 1964.[1] The results of the census were not publicized and its very existence was not officially acknowledged until the early 1980s.[2]

The 1964 census included additional information about education, occupation, and class to the information gathered by the first census concerning name, age, sex, nationality, and relationship to heads of households.[3]

Results[edit]

Total Population[edit]

The census found the total population of Mainland China in 1964 as 694,581,759.

However, the official summaries published in Chinese Sociology and Anthropology by the Chinese State Statistical Bureau in 1984 listed the 1964 population as 723,070,269.[1] China's official Xinhua news organization continues to report this larger figure.[4]

Demographics[edit]

The census found approximately 356,520,000 men and 338,060,000 women living in China, a ratio of 105.46 to 100.

The average household size was 4.43, an increase of 1/10 person per household from the previous census. 40.69% of the population was 14 or under; 55.75% of the population was between 15 and 64; and 3.56% of the population was 65 or older.

Han Chinese accounted for approximately 654,560,000 persons (94.24% of the total). Minorities accounted for approx. 40,020,000 persons (5.76%).

127,100,000 Chinese were classified as living in cities, an urbanization rate of 18.30%.[5]

Provincial Distribution[edit]

Province or
autonomous region
1952 Census 1964 Census Change  % Change
Anhui 30,343,637 31,241,657 Increase898,020 2.96
Fujian 13,142,721 16,757,223 Increase3,614,502 27.50
Gansu[n 1] 12,928,102 12,630,569 Decrease-297,533 -2.30
Guangdong[n 2] 34,770,059 42,800,849 Increase8,030,790 23.10
Guizhou 15,037,310 17,140,521 Increase2,103,211 13.99
Hebei[n 3][n 4] 35,984,644 45,687,781 Increase7,009,306 18.12
Henan 44,214,594 50,325,511 Increase6,110,917 13.82
Heilongjiang 11,897,309 20,118,271 Increase8,220,962 69.10
Hubei 27,789,693 33,709,344 Increase5,919,651 21.30
Hunan 33,226,954 37,182,286 Increase3,955,332 11.90
Jiangsu 41,252,192 44,504,608 Increase3,252,416 7.88
Jiangxi 16,772,865 21,068,019 Increase4,295,154 25.61
Jilin 11,290,073 15,668,663 Increase4,378,590 38.78
Liaoning[n 4] 18,545,147 26,946,200 Increase8,401,053 45.30
Qinghai 1,676,534 2,145,604 Increase469,070 27.98
Rehe 5,160,822      
Sichuan[n 5][n 6] 62,303,999 67,956,490 Increase2,271,427 3.46
Shaanxi 15,881,281 20,766,915 Increase4,885,634 30.76
Shandong 48,876,548 55,519,038 Increase6,642,490 13.59
Shanxi 14,314,485 18,015,067 Increase3,700,582 25.85
Xikang 3,381,064      
Yunnan 17,472,737 20,509,525 Increase3,036,788 17.38
Zhejiang 22,865,747 28,318,573 Increase5,452,826 23.85
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 19,560,822 20,845,017 Increase1,284,195 6.57
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region[n 4] 6,100,104 12,348,638 Increase6,248,534 102.4
Xizang Autonomous Region
(Tibet)
1,273,969 1,251,225 Decrease-22,744 -1.79
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 4,873,608 7,270,067 Increase2,396,459 49.17
Beijing Municipality 2,768,149 7,568,495 Increase4,800,346 173.4
Shanghai Municipality 6,204,417 10,816,458 Increase4,612,041 74.33
Tianjin Municipality 2,693,831      
Total 582,603,417 694,581,759 Increase111,978,342 19.22

Controversy[edit]

As with the 1953 census, the accuracy of the Second National Population Census was questioned by many outside observers. The information collected about occupation and education was so unsystematic, it could not even be accurately tabulated,[3] although the nation's illiteracy rate was recorded as 32.26%[1] and 33.58%.[5]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The population Ningxia was detached from the 1964 figures.
  2. ^ Includes the modern Hainan province.
  3. ^ All 1964 figures incorporate Tianjin municipality.
  4. ^ a b c 1964 population figure includes incorporation of parts of Rehe Province.
  5. ^ Includes the modern Chongqing municipality.
  6. ^ All 1964 figures incorporate Xikang province.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Chinese State Statistical Bureau. "Major statistics from the second population census (1964)". Chinese Sociology and Anthropology. 1984 Spring-Summer; 16(3-4):66-8. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.
  2. ^ Kirkby, Richard J.R. Urbanisation in China: town and country in a developing economy, 1949-2000 AD. Taylor & Francis, 1985. ISBN 0709915489. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.
  3. ^ a b Aird, John S. "The Preparations for China's 1982 Census". The China Quarterly, No. 91 (Sept 1982), pp. 369-385. Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ Xinhua Net. "Backgrounder: China's national population censuses". 28 Apr 2011. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.
  5. ^ a b National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Cit. in Coutsoukis, Photius. Allcountries.org: "4-4 Basic Statistics on National Population Census in 1953, 1964, 1982, 1990 and 2000". 2006. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.