Second pledge at al-Aqabah

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This is a sub-article to Muhammad before Medina.

The Second pledge at al-Aqabah was an important event that preceded the Migration to Medina.

Event[edit]

Converts to Islam came from nearly all Arab tribes present in Medina, such that by June of the subsequent year there were seventy-five Muslims coming to Mecca for pilgrimage and to meet Muhammad. Meeting him secretly by night, the group made what was known as the "Second Pledge of al-`Aqaba", or "The Second Pledge of Mount Aqabah" where the pledge was made. The guarantee of protection led Orientalists and Muslim scholars to to describe it as "Pledge of War".[1][2] Conditions of the pledge, many of which similar to the first, included obedience to Muhammad, "enjoining good and forbidding evil" as well as responding to the call to arms when required.[3]

The Muslim scholar Shawqī Abū Khalīl says that the pledge states:[4]

List[edit]

A list of those included:

  1. Abu Umamah[5]
  2. Nusaybah bint Ka'ab, from the Banu Najjar[6]

From Banu Khazraj:

  1. `Abd Allah ibn Rawahah[7][8]
  2. Sa'd ibn Ubadah[7]
  3. As‘ad bin Zurarah bin ‘Ads[7]
  4. Sa‘d bin Ar-Rabi‘ bin ‘Amr[7]
  5. Rafi‘ bin Malik bin Al-‘Ajlan[7]
  6. Al-Bara’ bin Ma‘rur bin Sakhr[7]
  7. ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Haram[7]
  8. ‘Ubadah bin As-Samit bin Qais[7]
  9. Al-Mundhir bin ‘Amr bin Khunais[7]

From Banu Aws:

  1. Usaid bin Hudair bin Sammak[7]
  2. Sa‘d bin Khaithamah bin Al-Harith[7]
  3. Rifa‘a bin ‘Abdul Mundhir bin Zubair[7]

Arranging the meeting[edit]

The following year on the twelfth and last Islamic month (Dhu al-Hijjah) of 1 BH (June 622 CE), during the season of the pilgrimage (Arabic: Hajj‎),[7] 73 new Muslims converts from Medina [8] were among that year's polytheist pilgrims to Mecca. The oft-repeated question amongst them was "Isn’t it high time we protect Muhammad instead of leaving him forsaken, deserted and stumbling in the hillocks of Makkah?"[7]

Shortly after arriving to Mecca, they secretly contacted Muhammad and decided to have a meeting at night in mid Tashreeq Days[a] on last year’s meeting place.[7]

Pledge[edit]

A narration attributed to Ka'b ibn Malik reports:

A narration attributed to Jabir ibn Abd-Allah reports:

In another version:

A narration attributed to Ka'b ibn Malik reports:

A narration attributed to Jabir ibn Abd-Allah reports:

Muhammad took the pledge of the two women – Nusaybah bint Ka'ab and Nusaybah and Umm Munee Asma bint Amr bin 'Ad – orally, rather than clasping hands with them, considering that they were not Mahram with him.[7]

Deputies[edit]

Muhammad asked those involved to appoint twelve deputies to preach Islam in Medina and taking responsibility in matters relating to the propagation of Islam regarding the people of their own tribe. Those elected were:

From Banu Khazraj:

  1. `Abd Allah ibn Rawahah [7]
  2. Sa'd ibn Ubadah [7]
  3. As‘ad bin Zurarah bin ‘Ads [7]
  4. Sa‘d bin Ar-Rabi‘ bin ‘Amr [7]
  5. Rafi‘ bin Malik bin Al-‘Ajlan [7]
  6. Al-Bara’ bin Ma‘rur bin Sakhr [7]
  7. ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Haram [7]
  8. ‘Ubadah bin As-Samit bin Qais [7]
  9. Al-Mundhir bin ‘Amr bin Khunais [7]

From Banu Aws:

  1. Usaid bin Hudair bin Sammak[7]
  2. Sa‘d bin Khaithamah bin Al-Harith[7]
  3. Rifa‘a bin ‘Abdul Mundhir bin Zubair[7]

Once again, those twelve men were sworn to act as surety over the affairs of their people, and Muhammad would act as surety over his people, meaning all the Muslims.[7]

At this point were the secret meeting discovered by an inhabited in Al-‘Aqabah. Al-‘Abbas bin Nadlah said "By Allâh, Who has sent you in Truth, we are powerful enough to put the people of Mina (the Quraishites) to our swords tomorrow, if you desire." Muhammad said "We have not been commanded to follow that course. Now, back to your camps." They went back to sleep until morning.[7]

Meccan protests[edit]

The following day, a large delegation that included the Meccan leaders set out for the camp of the Medinan to protest severely against the treaty: "O people of Khazraj, it transpired to us that you have come here to conclude a treaty with this man and evacuate him out of Makkah. By Allâh, we do really hold in abhorrence any sort of fight between you and us."[7]

The Medinan polytheists were not aware of the secret meeting and swore by God that no truth in the report. ‘Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul, a Medinan polytheist, refuted their allegations denouncing them as null and void, claiming that his people would never initiate anything unless he gave them clear orders.

The Medinan Muslims did not speak and the Meccans became convinced by the arguments of the Medinan polytheist. However, they were not fully satisfied and kept investigating the matter. It was not after that the Medinan pilgrims had left the city that they realized the truth of the matter. In a fit of rage, they pursued the pilgrims.[7]

After much effort, they arrested al-Mundhir bin Amru but he broke away from them. Sa'd ibn Ubadah was also captured. They tied his hands to his neck and dragged him by his hair. Heavily beating him, they brought him to Mecca. But, luckily, Al-Mut‘im bin ‘Adi and Harith ibn Harb saved him, due to business relation they had with him.[7][10]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ the 11th, 12th and 13th days of Dhu al-Hijjah.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shawqī Abū Khalīl, Atlas Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah, p.85, Darussalam (2004), ISBN 9960897710. Quote: "The second Pledge of Al-'Aqabah (the pledge of war) was: "Blood is blood and blod not to be paid for is blood not to be paid for. I am of you and you are of me. I will war against them that war against you, and be at peace with those and peace with you""
  2. ^ Watt (1974) p. 83
  3. ^ Ibn Hisham, as-Seerat an-Nabawiyyah, Vol. I p. 454
  4. ^ a b Shawqī Abū Khalīl, Atlas Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah, p.85, Darussalam (2004), ISBN 9960897710. Quote: "The second Pledge of Al-'Aqabah (the pledge of war) was: "Blood is blood and blood not to be paid for is blood not to be paid for. I am of you and you are of me. I will war against them that war against you, and be at peace with those and peace with you""
  5. ^ Tahdhib al-Tahdhib by Ibn Hajar Asqalani Dictionary, Al Islam .
  6. ^ Ghadanfar, Mahmood Ahmad (2001), Great Women of Islam, Riyadh, pp. 207–15 .
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak "The Second ‘Aqabah Pledge", The Sealed Nectar, Sunni path .
  8. ^ a b Abd Allah ibn Rawaahah, Islamic council .
  9. ^ Ahmad ibn Hanbal
  10. ^ "7. Glimpses of hope – Light of Islam", A Personality: The Apostle, SE: Swipnet .