Secret of Mana

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Secret of Mana
Secret of Mana Box.jpg
Developer(s) Square (SNES)
Square Enix (iOS)
Publisher(s) Square (SNES)
Square Enix (iOS)
Director(s) Koichi Ishii
Producer(s) Hiromichi Tanaka
Designer(s) Koichi Ishii
Hiromichi Tanaka
Programmer(s) Nasir Gebelli
Artist(s) Hiroo Isono
Writer(s) Hiromichi Tanaka
Composer(s) Hiroki Kikuta
Series Mana
Platform(s) SNES, FOMA 903i/703i, Virtual Console, iOS, Android
Release date(s) SNES
JP 19930806August 6, 1993

NA 19931003October 3, 1993
PAL 19941124November 24, 1994
JP September 9, 2008 (Wii VC)
NA October 13, 2008 (Wii VC)
PAL December 26, 2008 (Wii VC)

JP June 26, 2013 (Wii U VC)
FOMA 903i/703i phones
  • JP October 26, 2009
December 21, 2010
Fall 2014
Genre(s) Action role-playing
Mode(s) Single-player, multiplayer

Secret of Mana, originally released in Japan as Seiken Densetsu 2 (聖剣伝説2?, lit. "Legend of the Sacred Sword 2"), is a 1993 action role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. It is the sequel to the 1991 game Seiken Densetsu, released in North America as Final Fantasy Adventure and in Europe as Mystic Quest, and it was the first Seiken Densetsu title to be marketed as part of the Mana series rather than the Final Fantasy series. Set in a high fantasy universe, the game follows three heroes as they attempt to prevent an empire from conquering the world with the power of an ancient flying warship.

Rather than using a turn-based battle system like contemporary role-playing games, Secret of Mana features real-time battles. The game has a unique Ring Command menu system, which pauses the action and allows the player to make decisions in the middle of battle. An innovative cooperative multiplayer system allows a second or third player to drop in and out of the game at any time. Secret of Mana was directed and designed by Koichi Ishii, programmed primarily by Nasir Gebelli, and produced by veteran Square designer Hiromichi Tanaka.

The game received considerable acclaim for its brightly colored graphics, expansive plot, Ring Command menu system, and innovative real-time battle system. Critics also praised the soundtrack by Hiroki Kikuta and the customizable artificial intelligence (AI) settings for computer-controlled allies. An enhanced iOS port of the game was released in 2010, an additional release for mobile phones in Japan was produced in 2009, and the original version was re-released for the Wii's Virtual Console in 2008.


The standard overhead view. The party's attack strength and remaining health is shown in the gauges at the bottom.

Like many other role-playing games of the 16-bit era, Secret of Mana displays a top-down perspective, in which the player characters navigate the terrain and fight off hostile creatures. The game features three such characters: the hero, the girl, and the sprite, named Randi, Primm, and Popoi outside the initial North American release. The player can choose to control each of the characters at any time; whichever character is currently selected, the other two companions are controlled via artificial intelligence. The game may be played simultaneously by up to three players,[1][2] made possible by the Super Multitap accessory for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) console.[3] The Virtual Console version of the game supports three-player gameplay via additional GameCube controllers or Classic Controllers.[4]

Each character possesses individual strengths and weaknesses. The hero, while unable to use magic, masters weapons at a quicker rate; the girl is a healer, able to cast restorative and support spells; and the sprite casts offensive magic to damage and impair enemies.[4] Upon collecting enough experience points in battle, each character increases in level and improves in areas such as strength and evasion. The trio can rest in towns, where they can regain hit points or purchase restorative items and equipment. Options such as changing equipment, casting spells, or checking status are performed by cycling through the game's Ring Commands, a circular menu which hovers over the currently controlled party member.[2][3][4] The game is momentarily paused whenever the Ring Commands appear.[5]

Flammie flying and demonstrating Mode 7

Combat takes place in real-time.[2] Located at the bottom of the screen is a gauge that determines the amount of damage done to an enemy when attacking. Swinging a weapon causes the gauge to empty and then quickly recharge, allowing that character to attack at full strength. The party wields eight different types of weaponry: sword, spear, bow, axe, boomerang, glove, whip, and javelin. All weapons can be upgraded eight times, and repeated use of a weapon increases its skill level to a maximum of eight, unlocking a new special attack with each level. Weapons are upgraded with Weapon Orbs, which are found in dungeons or earned by defeating certain bosses.[2] The player takes each Orb to a blacksmith, located in most towns, who uses it to reforge one weapon.[1][6]

In order to learn magic, the party must rescue spirits known as Elementals. The eight Elementals represent different elements—such as water, earth, and life—and each provides the player with specific spells. Magic has skill levels similar to weapons, but each magic spell costs magic points to cast.[1]

At the start of the game, to reach a destination players must traverse an enemy-infested countryside. Travel may be expedited with Cannon Travel Centers, where the party may be launched to faraway destinations via a giant cannon. Cannon Travel usually requires a fee, but is mandatory to visit other continents later on.[3] Later, the party is given access to Flammie, a miniature dragon which is controlled by the player and able to fly freely across the world, represented by an overworld map.[7] These sequences make use of the SNES's Mode 7 capability to create a rotatable background, giving the illusion that the ground beneath Flammie is rendered in three dimensions. While riding Flammie, the player may access either the "rotated map", which presents the world as a globe, or the "world map", a two-dimensional view of the overworld.[8]


Setting and characters[edit]

The story takes place in a high fantasy world, which contains an ethereal energy source named "mana". An ancient, technologically-advanced civilization exploited mana to construct the "Mana Fortress", a flying warship. This angered the world's gods, who sent giant beasts to war with the civilization. The conflict was globally destructive and nearly exhausted all signs of mana in the world, until a hero used the power of the Mana Sword to destroy the fortress and the civilization. The world began to recover in peace. As the game opens, an empire seeks eight Mana Seeds, which when "unsealed" will restore mana to the world and allow the empire to restore the Mana Fortress.[9]

The three main characters do not have names in the original SNES release, though their names appear in the manual of the Japanese release; and their names were added into the game in the iOS port worldwide. In all versions, the player can choose to name the characters whatever they wish. The hero (ランディ Randi?),[10] a young boy, is adopted by the Elder of Potos before the start of the game, after the boy's mother disappears. The girl (プリム Primm?)[10] is in love with a warrior named Dyluck, who was ordered by the king to attack Elinee's Castle. Angered by the king's actions and by her father's attempt to arrange her marriage to a local nobleman, she leaves the castle to save Dyluck and to accompany the hero as well.[11] The hero and the girl meet the sprite child (ポポイ Popoi?)[10] at the Dwarf Village. The sprite makes a living by scamming people at a freak show held by dwarves. He does not remember anything about his past, so he joins the team to try to recover his memories.[12]


The game begins as three boys from the small Potos village disobey their Elder's instructions and trespass into a local waterfall, where a treasure is said to be kept. One of the boys stumbles and falls into the lake, where he finds a rusty sword embedded in a stone. Guided by a disembodied voice, he pulls the sword free, inadvertently unleashing monsters in the surrounding countryside of the village. The villagers interpret the sword's removal as a bad omen and banish the boy from Potos forever.[13] A traveling knight named Jema recognizes the blade as the legendary Mana Sword and encourages the hero to re-energize it by visiting the eight Mana Temples.[14]

During his journey, the hero is joined by the girl and the sprite. Throughout their travels, the trio is pursued by the empire. The Emperor and his subordinates are being manipulated by Thanatos, an ancient sorcerer who hopes to create a "new, peaceful world".[15] Due to his own body's deterioration, Thanatos is in need of a suitable body to possess. After placing the entire kingdom of Pandora under a trance, he abducts two candidates: Dyluck, now enslaved, and a young Pandoran girl named Phanna; he eventually chooses to possess Dyluck.[16]

The Empire succeeds in unsealing all eight Mana Seeds. However, Thanatos betrays the Emperor and his henchmen, killing them and seizing control of the Mana Fortress for himself. The hero and his party journey to locate the Mana Tree, the focal point of the world's life energy. Anticipating their arrival, Thanatos positions the Mana Fortress over the Tree and destroys it. The charred remains of the Tree speak to the heroes, explaining that a giant dragon called the Mana Beast will soon be summoned to combat the Fortress. However, the Beast has little control over its rage and will likely destroy the world as well.[17] The Mana Tree also reveals that it was once the human wife of Serin, the original Mana Knight and the hero's father. The voice heard at Potos' waterfall was that of Serin's ghost.[18]

The trio flies to the Mana Fortress and confronts Thanatos, who is preparing to transfer his mind into Dyluck. With the last of his strength, Dyluck warns that Thanatos has sold his soul to the underworld and must not be allowed to have the Fortress.[19] Dyluck kills himself, forcing Thanatos to revert to a skeletal lich form, which the party defeats. The Mana Beast finally flies in and attacks the Fortress. The hero expresses reluctance to kill the Beast, fearing that with the dispersal of Mana from the world, the sprite will vanish.[20] With the sprite's encouragement, he uses the fully energized Mana Sword to slay the Beast, causing it to explode and transform into snow.[21] At the conclusion of the game, the hero is seen returning the Mana Sword to its place beneath the Potos waterfall.


Secret of Mana producer Hiromichi Tanaka

Secret of Mana was directed and designed by Koichi Ishii, the creator of the series. He has stated that he feels the game is more "his game" than other games he has worked on, such as the Final Fantasy series.[22] The game was programmed primarily by Nasir Gebelli and produced by veteran Square designer Hiromichi Tanaka. It was intended to be an improved sequel to Final Fantasy Adventure, the first game in the Mana series, and included several modified elements from the previous game or from other popular Square games. In addition to having better graphics and sound quality than its Game Boy predecessor, the attack power gauge was changed to be more engaging than waiting for a bar to fill up, and the weapon leveling system replaced Final Fantasy Adventure's system of leveling up the speed of the attack gauge.[23] The party system also received an upgrade from the first Mana game; instead of temporary helper characters who could not be upgraded, party members became permanent alternative main characters to the hero and could be controlled by other players.[23] The multiplayer component was not a part of the original design, but was added when the developers realized that they could easily make all three characters human-controlled.[22]

The real-time battle system used in Secret of Mana has been described by its creators as an extension of the battle system used in the first three flagship Final Fantasy titles. The data tables for experience points and leveling up were taken from Final Fantasy III.[24] Tanaka has stated that the battle system in the game contains ideas that the developers of Final Fantasy IV were considering. Other ideas for Secret of Mana were used in development for Chrono Trigger, which like Final Fantasy IV was in production at the time.[22]

Secret of Mana was originally planned to be a launch title for the SNES CD add-on. When Sony changed the project to be the standalone PlayStation console, Square Enix chose to continue to develop the game for the SNES. The game had to be altered to fit onto a standard game cartridge, which had less storage space than the SNES CD add-on would have allowed.[25] The developers initially resisted continuing the project without the CD add-on, feeling that too much of the game would have to be cut, but were overruled by company management. As a result of the hardware change, several features had to be cut from the game, and some completed work needed to be redone.[22] The largest of these was the option to take multiple routes through the game, which would have resulted in several possible endings rather than the linear journey the plot ended up taking.[23] The plot that remained was different than the original conception, and Tanaka has said that the original story had a much darker tone.[22] Ishii has estimated that up to forty percent of the planned game had to be dropped to meet the space limitations, and critics have connected the hardware change to some technical problems the game has when too much is happening at once in the game.[22][26] Level magazine has claimed that the development issues for the game due to the cancellation of the CD add-on led directly to Square moving their games, such as the Final Fantasy series, from Nintendo consoles to Sony consoles in 1996.[22]

The English translation for Secret of Mana was completed in only 30 days, mere weeks after the Japanese release,[27] and was initially advertised as Final Fantasy Adventure 2.[28] The translation was presumably done hastily so that the game could be released in North America for the 1993 holiday season.[25] According to translator Ted Woolsey, a large portion of the game's script was cut out in the English localization due to space limitations.[29] To display text on the main gameplay screen, the English translation uses a fixed-width font, which limits the amount of space available to display text. Woolsey was unhappy that he had to trim conversations to their bare essentials and that he had so little time for translation, commenting that it "nearly killed me".[30] The script was difficult to translate as it was presented to Woolsey in disordered groups of text, like "shuffling a novel".[29] Other localizations were done in German and French. The Japanese release only named the three protagonists in the manual,[31] while the Western versions omitted the default names and first acknowledged them with the enhanced port on the iOS.[32][33]


Secret of Mana composer Hiroki Kikuta
Secret of Mana Original Soundtrack
Soundtrack album by Hiroki Kikuta
Released August 6, 1993
August 25, 1995
October 1, 2004
Genre Ambient, Classical, Electronic, Video game soundtrack
Length 1:06:01
Label NTT Publishing/Square
NTT Publishing (reprints)

The score for Secret of Mana was composed by Hiroki Kikuta. Kenji Ito, who had composed the soundtrack for Final Fantasy Adventure, was originally slated for the project. He was replaced with Kikuta when Ito was forced to drop Secret of Mana due to other demands on his time, such as the soundtrack to Romancing SaGa. It was Kikuta's first video game score.[34] Despite difficulties in dealing with the hardware limitations of the SNES, Kikuta tried to express in the music two "contrasting styles" to create an original score which would be neither pop music nor standard game music.[35] Kikuta worked on the music mostly by himself, spending nearly 24 hours a day in his office, alternating between composing and editing to create a soundtrack that would be, according to him, "immersive", and would sound "three-dimensional".[36] Rather than using pre-made MIDI samples of instruments like most game music composers of the time, Kikuta made his own MIDI samples that matched the hardware capabilities of the SNES. With those custom samples, he knew exactly how the pieces would sound on the system's hardware rather than having to deal with audio hardware differences between the original MIDI sampler and the SNES.[37] Kikuta considers the score for Secret of Mana his favorite creation.[38] His compositions for the game were partly inspired by natural landscapes, as well as music from Bali.[39][40]

The soundtrack's music includes both "ominous" and "light-hearted" tracks, and is noted for its use of bells and "dark, solemn pianos".[41] Hardware limitations made the title screen to the game slowly fade in, and Kikuta designed the title track to the game, "Fear of the Heavens", to sync up with the screen; at the time trying to match the audio and visual effects in a game was rare. Kikuta also started the track off with a "whale noise", rather than a traditional "ping", in order to try to "more deeply connect" the player with the game from the moment it started up; getting the sound to work with the memory limitations of the SNES was a difficult technical challenge.[37]

Secret of Mana Original Soundtrack is a 1993 soundtrack album containing 44 tracks of music from Secret of Mana, first released as Seiken Densetsu 2 Original Sound Version in Japan; the releases are identical aside from the packaging and localized English song titles. Secret of Mana was one of the first soundtrack releases for the North American version of a Japanese game.[41] In addition to the original soundtrack album, an arranged album of music from Secret of Mana and Seiken Densetsu 3 titled Secret of Mana+ was produced in 1993. The music was all composed and arranged by Kikuta, and is composed of a single track titled "Secret of Mana" that incorporates themes from the music of Secret of Mana as well as a few themes from Seiken Densetsu 3, which was still under development at the time.[42] The style of the album is described as "experimental", using "strange sounds" such as waterfalls, bird calls, cell phone sounds, and "typing" sounds.[43] The music has also been described as covering many different musical styles, such as "Debussian impressionist styles, his own heavy electronic and synth ideas, and even ideas of popular musicians".[42] The latest album of music from the game is a 2012 arranged album titled Secret of Mana Genesis / Seiken Densetsu 2 Arrange Album. The 16 tracks are upgraded versions of the original SNES tracks, and Kikuta said in the liner notes for the album that they are "how he wanted the music to sound when he wrote it", without the limitations of the SNES hardware, though critics such as Patrick Gann of RPGFan have noted that the differences are minor.[44]


In 1999, as part of their planned nine-game lineup, Square announced they would be porting Secret of Mana to Bandai's handheld system WonderSwan Color.[45] As with the planned remake of Final Fantasy III, no news of the port ever surfaced outside the announcement. A mobile phone port of Secret of Mana was released on October 26, 2009.[46] A port of the game for iOS was revealed at E3 2010, and released on Apple's App Store on December 21, 2010.[47] The port fixed several bugs, and the English script was both edited and retranslated from the original Japanese.[48]

Reception and legacy[edit]

Aggregate scores
Aggregator Score
GameRankings 87% (9 reviews)[55]
Review scores
Publication Score
AllGame 5/5 stars[49]
Dragon (magazine) 5/5 stars[50]
Edge 9 / 10[51]
Electronic Gaming Monthly 8.75 / 10[52]
Eurogamer 9 / 10[53]
Famitsu 33 / 40[56]
IGN 9.0 / 10[54]
Nintendo Power 3.65 / 5[55]
RPGFan 90%[1]
Slide to Play 4/4 stars (iOS)[48]

As of February 2004, Secret of Mana had shipped 1.83 million copies worldwide, with 1.5 million of those copies being shipped in Japan and 330,000 abroad.[57] Edge noted in November 1993 that the game was "the most widely covered game of the year in Japan", "selling to avid gameplayers by the truckload", but was released in North America "completely un-hyped and mostly unheard of".[51]

The game was well-received at the time of its release. Secret of Mana was awarded Game of the Month in December 1993 and Best Role-Playing Game of 1993 by Electronic Gaming Monthly.[52][58] In their 1993 review of the game, the reviewers for Electronic Gaming Monthly heavily praised the graphics, music, and multiplayer gameplay, saying that it had "some of the best music I've ever heard from a cartridge", and wishing that other companies would take the game's lead in adding multiplayer modes to role-playing games.[52] Diehard GameFan's 1993 review of the game named the multiplayer as the game's best component, with reviewer Kelly Rickards saying that while the graphics were nice, the multiplayer "made the game".[59] GamePro's 1993 review, however, praised the graphics and plot, while stating that the gameplay and multiplayer were "rough around the edges".[60]

In 1994, Edge magazine said that it was "better than Ys I & II on the PC Engine. Better than Zelda on the SNES. And yes, better than Landstalker on the Mega Drive." The magazine stated that Secret of Mana "includes some of the best game design and features ever seen: simultaneous threeplayer action, the best combat system ever designed, the best player interface ever designed, a superb control system, and yes, some of the most engrossing and rewarding gameplay yet. It really is in a class of its own as far as action RPGs or adventures go."[51] In 1994, game designer Sandy Petersen reviewed the game in Dragon, awarding Secret of Mana a perfect score of 5 out of 5 stars. He described the game as much like Zelda but with conventional role-playing game features, and he predicted that the game would be regarded as a classic. He concluded that Secret of Mana was one of the best SNES role-playing games and that it was "a much larger game than Zelda, with many more types of monsters, character options, and fortresses to explore".[50]

Later versions of the game have also been favorably reviewed, though not as widely as the original. In 2008, Lucas Thomas of IGN awarded the Virtual Console port of Secret of Mana a score of 9 out of 10, stating that it was considered one of the best video games ever made.[54] Eurogamer's Dan Whitehead also recommended the port, describing it as "essential" and as the formative game of the Mana series.[53] The iOS port of the game was praised by Nadia Oxford of Slide to Play for its improved graphics and computer-controlled characters as well as for the quality of the touch controls relative to other role-playing game phone versions, though she disliked that the multiplayer mode had been removed.[48]

Secret of Mana has been described by Edge magazine in 2014 as "one of the high points of the 16bit era", and also that, 20 years after its release, only The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past is considered to have been a better action-RPG for the SNES.[26] Review aggregator site GameRankings lists the game as the 13th-highest rated SNES game.[55] The game has been on numerous all-time "best games" lists since its release. Super Play ranked the game eighth on its list of the best 100 SNES games of all time in 1996.[61] It was listed at number 42 on Nintendo Power magazine's 2006 Top 200 Nintendo Games of All Time list, as well as the 86th best game made on a Nintendo system.[62] It was also rated number 48 on IGN's "Top 100 Games" list in 2005,[63] number 49 in 2006,[64] and number 79 in 2007.[65] Secret of Mana was an influential game in its time, and has remained influential through to the present day, with elements such as its ring menu system, described by Edge as "oft-mimicked", still used in modern games like The Temple of Elemental Evil[26][66] and its cooperative multiplayer gameplay mentioned as an influence on games as recent as Dungeon Siege III.[67] The Rabite enemy, introduced in the game, has become a mascot character for the series.[26]


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  12. ^ Square (1993-10-03). Secret of Mana. Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Square. "Popoi: Well, how was that? What an actor I am! That guy was even crying! [...] Elder: Hey! Sorry about that. This child received such a shock from drifting here, it lost all its memories." 
  13. ^ Square (1993-10-03). Secret of Mana. Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Square. "Elder: Oh, Randi! You've really done it to me this time! The reason why monsters have appeared is because you removed the sword. [...] I don't want to do this, but I have no choice. I'm going to have to ask you to leave the village." 
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  17. ^ Square (1993-10-03). Secret of Mana. Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Square. "Mana Tree: The Mana Fortress is using up most of the world's Mana. Soon all the beasts of will be transformed into one giant creature. Only the great Mana Beast can bring back Mana. But the Beast has little control over its rage. If it were to attack the fortress, the world would be finished." 
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  19. ^ Square (1993-10-03). Secret of Mana. Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Square. "Dyluck: Princess...can you hear me? It's me, Dyluck... He's too strong...I'm finished, but I can help you... Thanatos is an ancient sorcerer who sold his heart to the underworld. Though his life force is eternal, he hasn't his own body. His life force is growing darker. He feeds on hatred and destruction!" 
  20. ^ Square (1993-10-03). Secret of Mana. Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Square. "Protagonist: ...I can't... I won't hurt a Mana Beast! I can't! They are only trying to restore Mana! And......sprite! If you use up all your Mana power, you'll disappear!" 
  21. ^ Square (1993-10-03). Secret of Mana. Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Square. "Popoi: OK, if we don't stop the Mana Beast, your world is finished, right? Everything will perish. Trees...animals...PEOPLE! That must not happen! YOU have the Mana Sword, YOU must save this world... YOU have no choice! You made a vow to your mother, the Mana Tree, right? I'll be okay. [...] Randi: Sprite! ...he's...gone! I didn't even say goodbye. [...] Primm: The Mana Beast is turning into...snow!" 
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