Segal–Cover score

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A Segal–Cover score is an attempt to measure the "perceived qualifications and ideology" of United States Supreme Court justices. The scores are created by analyzing pre-confirmation newspaper editorials regarding the nominations from The New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and The Wall Street Journal. Each nominee receives two scores that range from 0 to 1:

The Segal–Cover scoring was introduced by Jeffrey Segal and Albert Cover (both of Stony Brook University) in their 1989 article "Ideological Values and the Votes of U.S. Supreme Court Justices".[1][2] The scores have been updated by Segal to cover all nominees from Hugo Black in 1937 to the 2010 nomination of Elena Kagan.[3] Segal and Cover found that the scores are strongly correlated with the subsequent votes of the justices. Because the scores are based on perceptions before the nominee takes a seat on the Court, they also provide "reliable measures of the ideological values of Supreme Court justices that are independent of the votes they later cast."[1]

The Segal–Cover perceived qualifications and ideology scores for all nominees to the Court from 1937–2012:

Nom.
Order
Nominee Chief
Justice
Senate
Vote
Ideology
Score
Qualifications
Score
1 Black, HugoHugo Black 67 – 18 0.875 0.160
2 Reed, Stanley F.Stanley F. Reed Voice Vote 0.725 0.875
3 Frankfurter, FelixFelix Frankfurter Voice Vote 0.665 0.965
4 Douglas, William O.William O. Douglas 62 – 4 0.730 0.820
5 Murphy, FrankFrank Murphy Voice Vote 1.000 0.650
6 Stone, Harlan F.Harlan F. Stone CJ Voice Vote 0.300 1.000
7 Byrnes, James F.James F. Byrnes Voice Vote 0.330 0.800
8 Jackson, Robert H.Robert H. Jackson Voice Vote 1.000 0.915
9 Rutledge, Wiley B.Wiley B. Rutledge Voice Vote 1.000 1.000
10 Burton, Harold H.Harold H. Burton Voice Vote 0.280 0.930
11 Vinson, Fred M.Fred M. Vinson CJ Voice Vote 0.750 0.785
12 Clark, Tom C.Tom C. Clark 73 – 8 0.500 0.125
13 Minton, ShermanSherman Minton 48 – 16 0.720 0.355
14 Warren, EarlEarl Warren CJ Voice Vote 0.750 0.855
15 Harlan, John M.John M. Harlan 71 – 11 0.875 0.750
16 Brennan, Jr., William J.William J. Brennan, Jr. Voice Vote 1.000 1.000
17 Whittaker, Charles E.Charles E. Whittaker Voice Vote 0.500 1.000
18 Stewart, PotterPotter Stewart 70 – 17 0.750 1.000
19 White, ByronByron White Voice Vote 0.500 0.500
20 Goldberg, Arthur J.Arthur J. Goldberg Voice Vote 0.750 0.915
21 Fortas, AbeAbe Fortas Voice Vote 1.000 1.000
22 Marshall, ThurgoodThurgood Marshall 69 – 11 1.000 0.835
23 Fortas, AbeAbe Fortas CJ 45 – 43 * 0.845 0.635
24 Burger, Warren E.Warren E. Burger CJ 74 – 3 0.115 0.960
25 Haynsworth, Jr., ClementClement Haynsworth, Jr. 45 – 55 0.160 0.335
26 Carswell, G. HarroldG. Harrold Carswell 45 – 51 0.040 0.111
27 Blackmun, Harry A.Harry A. Blackmun 94 – 0 0.115 0.970
28 Powell, Jr., Lewis F.Lewis F. Powell, Jr. 89 – 1 0.165 1.000
29 Rehnquist, WilliamWilliam Rehnquist 68 – 26 0.045 0.885
30 Stevens, John PaulJohn Paul Stevens 98 – 0 0.250 0.960
31 O’Connor, Sandra DaySandra Day O’Connor 99 – 0 0.415 1.000
32 Rehnquist, WilliamWilliam Rehnquist CJ 65 – 33 0.045 0.400
33 Scalia, AntoninAntonin Scalia 98 – 0 0.000 1.000
34 Bork, Robert H.Robert H. Bork 42 – 58 0.095 0.790
35 Ginsburg, DouglasDouglas Ginsburg Withdrawn 0.000 0.320
36 Kennedy, AnthonyAnthony Kennedy 97 – 0 0.365 0.890
37 Souter, DavidDavid Souter 90 – 9 0.325 0.765
38 Thomas, ClarenceClarence Thomas 52 – 48 0.160 0.415
39 Ginsburg, Ruth BaderRuth Bader Ginsburg 96 – 3 0.680 1.000
40 Breyer, Stephen G.Stephen G. Breyer 87 – 9 0.475 0.545
41 Roberts, John G.John G. Roberts CJ 78 – 22 0.120 0.970
42 Miers, Harriet E.Harriet E. Miers Withdrawn 0.270 0.360
43 Alito, SamuelSamuel Alito 58 – 42 0.100 0.810
44 Sotomayor, SoniaSonia Sotomayor 68 – 31 0.780 0.810
45 Kagan, ElenaElena Kagan 63 – 37 0.730 0.730

* The vote on Fortas for the Chief Justice position was on cloture and failed to receive the necessary two-thirds majority.

A highlighted row indicates that the Justice is currently serving on the Court. A Senate vote in red text indicates that the nomination was blocked.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Segal, Jeffrey A.; Cover, Albert D. (June 1989). "Ideological Values and the Votes of U.S. Supreme Court Justices". The American Political Science Review 83 (2): 557–565. doi:10.2307/1962405. 
  2. ^ Segal, Jeffrey A.; Epstein, Lee; Cameron, Charles M.; Spaeth, Harold J. (August 1995). "Ideological Values and the Votes of U.S. Supreme Court Justices Revisited". The Journal of Politics 57 (03): 812–823. doi:10.2307/2960194. 
  3. ^ Segal, Jeffrey A. "Perceived Qualifications and Ideology of Supreme Court Nominees, 1937-2012". Retrieved 2012-04-04.