Shakespeare's influence

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William Shakespeare
Shakespeare.jpg
The Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed (National Portrait Gallery, London, currently on display at the National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.).
Born baptised 26 April 1564 (birth date unknown)
Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England
Died 23 April 1616
Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England
Occupation Playwright, poet, actor

Signature

William Shakespeare's influence extends from theatre and literature to present-day movies and the English language itself. Widely regarded as the greatest writer of the English language,[1] and the world's pre-eminent dramatist,[2][3][4] Shakespeare transformed European theatre by expanding expectations about what could be accomplished through characterization, plot, language and genre.[5][6][7] Shakespeare's writings have also influenced a large number of notable novelists and poets over the years, including Herman Melville[8] and Charles Dickens,[9] and continue to influence new authors even today. Shakespeare is the most quoted writer in the history of the English-speaking world[10][11] after the various writers of the Bible, and many of his quotations and neologisms have passed into everyday usage in English and other languages.

Changes in English at the time[edit]

Early Modern English as a literary medium was unfixed in structure and vocabulary in comparison to Greek and Latin, and was in a constant state of flux. When William Shakespeare began writing his plays, the English language was rapidly absorbing words from other languages due to wars, exploration, diplomacy and colonization. By the age of Elizabeth, English had become widely used with the expansion of philosophy, theology and physical sciences, but many writers lacked the vocabulary to express such ideas. To accommodate, writers such as Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip Sidney, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare expressed new ideas and distinctions by inventing, borrowing or adopting a word or a phrase from another language, known as neologizing. Scholars estimate that, between the years 1500 and 1659, nouns, verbs and modifiers of Latin, Greek and modern Romance languages added 30,000 new words to the English language.[citation needed]

Influence on theatre[edit]

Shakespeare's works have been a major influence on subsequent theatre. Not only did Shakespeare create some of the most admired plays in Western literature[12] (with Macbeth, Hamlet and King Lear being ranked among the world's greatest plays),[13] he also transformed English theatre by expanding expectations about what could be accomplished through characterization, plot, language, and genre.[5][14][15] Specifically, in plays like Hamlet, Shakespeare "integrated characterization with plot," such that if the main character was different in any way, the plot would be totally changed.[16] In Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare mixed tragedy and comedy together to create a new romantic tragedy genre (previous to Shakespeare, romance had not been considered a worthy topic for tragedy).[17] Through his soliloquies, Shakespeare showed how plays could explore a character's inner motivations and conflict (up until Shakespeare, soliloquies were often used by playwrights to "introduce (characters), convey information, provide an exposition or reveal plans").[18]

Characters[edit]

Shakespeare's plays portrayed a wide variety of emotions. His plays exhibited "spectacular violence, with loose and episodic plotting, and with mingling of comedy with tragedy".[19] In King Lear, Shakespeare had deliberately brought together two plots of different origins. His closeness to human nature made him greater than any of his contemporaries. Humanism and contact with popular thinking gave vitality to his language. Shakespeare's plays borrowed ideas from popular sources, folk traditions, street pamphlets, and sermons etc. Shakespeare used groundlings widely in his plays. The use of groundlings "saved the drama from academic stiffness and preserved its essential bias towards entertainment in comedy ".[19] Hamlet is an outstanding example of "groundlings" quickness and response.[19] Use of groundlings' enhanced Shakespeare's work practically and artistically. He represented English people more concretely and not as puppets. His skills have found expression in chronicles, or history plays, and tragedies.

Shakespeare's earliest years were dominated by history plays and a few comedies that formed a link to the later written tragedies. Nine out of eighteen plays he produced in the first decade of his career were chronicles or histories. His histories were based on the prevailing Tudor political thought. They portrayed the follies and achievements of kings, their misgovernment, church and problems arising out of these. "In shaping, compressing, and altering chronicles, Shakespeare gained the art of dramatic design; and in the same way he developed his remarkable insight into character, its continuity and its variation".[19] His characters were very near to reality.

"Shakespeare's characters are more sharply individualized after Love's Labour's Lost". His Richard II and Bolingbroke are complex and solid figures whereas Richard III has more "humanity and comic gusto".[19] The Falstaff trilogy is in this respect very important. Falstaff, although a minor character, has a powerful reality of its own. "Shakespeare uses him as a commentator who passes judgments on events represented in the play, in the light of his own super abundant comic vitality".[19] Falstaff, although outside "the prevailing political spirit of the play", throws insight into the different situations arising in the play. This shows that Shakespeare had developed a capacity to see the plays as whole, something more than characters and expressions added together. In Falstaff trilogy, through the character of Falstaff, he wants to show that in society "where touchstone of conduct is success, and in which humanity has to accommodate itself to the claims of expediency, there is no place for Falstaff", a loyal human-being. This sentiment is so true even after centuries.

Shakespeare united the three main steams of literature: verse, poetry, and drama. To the versification of the Old English language, he imparted his eloquence and variety giving highest expressions with elasticity of language. The second, the sonnets and poetry, was bound in structure. He imparted economy and intensity to the language. In the third and the most important area, the drama, he saved the language from vagueness and vastness and infused actuality and vividness. Shakespeare's work in prose, poetry, and drama marked the beginning of modernization of English language by introduction of words and expressions, style and form to the language.

Influence on European and American literature[edit]

Shakespeare is cited as an influence on a large number of writers in the following centuries, including major novelists such as Herman Melville,[8] Charles Dickens,[9] Thomas Hardy[20] and William Faulkner.[21] Examples of this influence include the large number of Shakespearean quotations throughout Dickens' writings[22] and the fact that at least 25 of Dickens' titles are drawn from Shakespeare,[23] while Melville frequently used Shakespearean devices, including formal stage directions and extended soliloquies, in Moby-Dick.[24] In fact, Shakespeare so influenced Melville that the novel's main antagonist, Captain Ahab, is a classic Shakespearean tragic figure, "a great man brought down by his faults."[8] Shakespeare has also influenced a number of English poets, especially Romantic poets such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge who were obsessed with self-consciousness, a modern theme Shakespeare anticipated in plays such as Hamlet.[25] Shakespeare's writings were so influential to English poetry of the 1800s that critic George Steiner has called all English poetic dramas from Coleridge to Tennyson "feeble variations on Shakespearean themes."[25]

Influence on the English language [edit]

Shakespeare's writings greatly influenced the entire English language. Prior to and during Shakespeare's time, the grammar and rules of English were not standardized.[26] But once Shakespeare's plays became popular in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century, they helped contribute to the standardization of the English language, with many Shakespearean words and phrases becoming embedded in the English language, particularly through projects such as Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language which quoted Shakespeare more than any other writer.[27] He expanded the scope of English literature by introducing new words and phrases,[28] experimenting with blank verse, and also introducing new poetic and grammatical structures.

Pre-Shakespearian English[edit]

Shakespeare wrote under the influence of writers such as Chaucer, Spenser and Sidney. It is also important to note the setting of Shakespeare's language. In 449, the Germanic tribes – the Angles, Saxons and Jutes had moved to Britain to side with the Celts in order to help them defeat their northern neighbors. After their victory, however, the Germanic tribes gradually pushed the Celts into what became Wales and Cornwall. The tribes introduced Anglo-Saxon, more commonly known as Old English language (Mario Pei). Anglo-Saxon survived despite the Norman invasion of 1066, which introduced French to England and strengthened Latin's existing power. These events marked the beginning of the Middle English period. Around 1204, bilingualism developed amongst "Norman officials, supervisors, [and] bilingual children [resulting from] French and English marriages".[29] English was, however, still not in common use, at least in matters of the state and clergy. King John's death indicated the end of Norman rule. The decision of the Norman proprietors and Edward I's (Henry III's son) conquest of Wales all contributed to increased usage of the English language. French/Norman cultural supremacy in England waned. The increase in the use of English resulted in the "smoothing out of dialectal differences [and] beginning of standard English based on London dialect".[29] Nevertheless, French remained the official language until around the 14th century. It was not until 1509, however, that English was recognized as the official language of England.[29] Until 1583, the rhetoric of the English language was deeply indebted to Chaucer. Otherwise, given the relative lack of written records, "the innovation of the language was uncertain".[19] The late 15th and early 16th century marks the approximate shift from Middle English to Early Modern English, the language of the Renaissance. "Before the arrival of Shakespeare to London, there was little hope for the future of English but by 1613, when Shakespeare's last work was written, the literature of modern English was already rich in varied achievements, self confident and mature".[19]

Vocabulary[edit]

Among Shakespeare's greatest contributions to the English language must be the introduction of new vocabulary and phrases which have enriched the language making it more colorful and expressive. Some estimates at the number of words coined by Shakespeare number in the several thousands. Warren King clarifies by saying that, "In all of his work – the plays, the sonnets and the narrative poems – Shakespeare uses 17,677 words: Of those, 1,700 were first used by Shakespeare."[30] He is also very known for borrowing from the classical literature and foreign languages.[19] He created these words by, "changing nouns into verbs, changing verbs into adjectives, connecting words never before used together, adding prefixes and suffixes, and devising words wholly original."[31] Many of Shakespeare's original phrases are still used in conversation and language today. These include, but are not limited to; "seen better days, strange bedfellows, a sorry sight,"[32] and "full circle".[33] Shakespeare's effect on vocabulary is rather astounding when considering how much language has changed since his lifetime.

Shakespeare helped to further develop style and structure to an otherwise loose, spontaneous language. The Elizabethan era language was written the same way it was spoken. The naturalness gave force and freedom since there was no formalized prescriptive grammar binding the expression. While lack of prescribed grammatical rules introduced vagueness in literature, it also expressed feelings with profound vividness and emotion which created, "freedom of expression" and "vividness of presentment".[34] It was a language which expressed feelings explicitly. Shakespeare's gift involved using the exuberance of the language and decasyllabic structure in prose and poetry of his plays to reach the masses and the result was "a constant two way exchange between learned and the popular, together producing the unique combination of racy tang and the majestic stateliness that informs the language of Shakespeare".[19]

While it is true that Shakespeare created many new words (the Oxford English Dictionary records over 2,000[35]), an article in National Geographic points out the findings of historian Jonathan Hope who wrote in "Shakespeare's 'Native English'" that "the Victorian scholars who read texts for the first edition of the OED paid special attention to Shakespeare: his texts were read more thoroughly, and cited more often, so he is often credited with the first use of words, or senses of words, which can, in fact, be found in other writers."[36] Shakespeare created many words that are commonly used in British lexicon today.[36]

Blank verse[edit]

Shakespeare's first plays were experimental as he was still learning from his own mistakes. It was a long journey from Titus Andronicus and King Henry VI to The Tempest. Gradually his language followed the "natural process of artistic growth, to find its adequate projection in dramatic form".[19] As he continued experimenting, his style of writing found many manifestations in plays. The dialogues in his plays were written in verse form and followed a decasyllabic rule.[citation needed] In Titus Andronicus, decasyllables have been used throughout. "There is considerable pause; and though the inflexibility of the line sound is little affected by it, there is a certain running over of sense". His work is still experimental in Titus Andronicus. However, in Love's Labour's Lost and The Comedy of Errors, there is "perfect metre-abundance of rime [rhyme], plenty of prose, arrangement in stanza". After these two comedies, he kept experimenting until he reached a maturity of style. "Shakespeare's experimental use of trend and style, as well as the achieved development of his blank verses, are all evidences of his creative invention and influences".[citation needed] Through experimentation of tri-syllabic substitution and decasyllabic rule he developed the blank verse to perfection and introduced a new style.

"Shakespeare's blank verse is one of the most important of all his influences on the way the English language was written".[citation needed] He used the blank verse throughout in his writing career experimenting and perfecting it. The free speech rhythm gave Shakespeare more freedom for experimentation. "Adaptation of free speech rhythm to the fixed blank-verse framework is an outstanding feature of Shakespeare's poetry".[19] The striking choice of words in common place blank verse influenced "the run of the verse itself, expanding into images which eventually seem to bear significant repetition, and to form, with the presentation of character and action correspondingly developed, a more subtle and suggestive unity".[19] Expressing emotions and situations in form of a verse gave a natural flow to language with an added sense of flexibility and spontaneity.

Poetry[edit]

He introduced in poetry two main factors – "verbal immediacy and the moulding of stress to the movement of living emotion".[19] Shakespeare's words reflected passage of time with "fresh, concrete vividness" giving the reader an idea of the time frame.[19] His remarkable capacity to analyze and express emotions in simple words was noteworthy:

"When my love swears that she is made of truth,
I do believe her, though I know she lies-"

—(Sonnet CXXXVIII)

In the sonnet above, he has expressed in very simple words "complex and even contradictory attitudes to a single emotion".[19]

The sonnet form was limited structurally, in theme and in expressions. Liveliness of Shakespeare's language and strict discipline of the sonnets imparted economy and intensity to his writing style. "It encouraged the association of compression with depth of content and variety of emotional response to a degree unparalleled in English".[19] Complex human emotions found simple expressions in Shakespeare's language.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reich, John J.; Cunningham, Lawrence S. (2005), Culture And Values: A Survey of the Humanities, Thomson Wadsworth, p. 102 
  2. ^ "William Shakespeare". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 June 2007. 
  3. ^ "William Shakespeare". MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 June 2007. 
  4. ^ "William Shakespeare". Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 June 2007. 
  5. ^ a b Miola, Robert S. (2000). Shakespeare's Reading. Oxford University Press. 
  6. ^ Chambers, Edmund Kerchever (1944). Shakespearean Gleanings. Oxford University Press. p. 35. 
  7. ^ Mazzeno, Laurence W.; Frank Northen Magilsadasdasdls and Dayton Kohler (1996) [1949]. Masterplots: 1,801 Plot Stories and Critical Evaluations of the World's Finest Literature. Salen Press. p. 2837. 
  8. ^ a b c Hovde, Carl F. "Introduction" Moby-Dick by Herman Melville, Spark Publishing, 2003, page xxvi.
  9. ^ a b Gager, Valerie L. (1996). Shakespeare and Dickens: The Dynamics of Influence. Cambridge University Press. p. 163. 
  10. ^ The Literary Encyclopedia entry on William Shakespeare by Lois Potter, University of Delaware, accessed 22 June 2006
  11. ^ The Columbia Dictionary of Shakespeare Quotations, edited by Mary Foakes and Reginald Foakes, June 1998.
  12. ^ Gaskell, Philip (1998). Landmarks in English Literature. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 13–14. 
  13. ^ Brown, Calvin Smith; Harrison, Robert L. Masterworks of World Literature Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970, page 4.
  14. ^ Chambers, Edmund Kerchever (1944). Shakespearean Gleanings. Oxford University Press. p. 35. 
  15. ^ Mazzeno, Laurence W.; Frank Northen Magills and Dayton Kohler (1996) [1949]. Masterplots: 1,801 Plot Stories and Critical Evaluations of the World's Finest Literature. Salen Press. p. 2837. 
  16. ^ Frye, Roland Mushat Shakespeare Routledge, 2005, page 118.
  17. ^ Levenson, Jill L. "Introduction" to Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, Oxford University Press, 2000, pages 49–50. In her discussion about gamma the play's genre, Levenson quotes scholar H.B. Charlton Romeo and Juliet creating a new genre of "romantic tragedy."
  18. ^ Clemen, Wolfgang H., Shakespeare's Soliloquies Routledge, 1987, page 179.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Borris Ford, ed. (1955). The Age of Shakespeare. Great Britain: Penguin Books. pp. 16,51,54,55,64,71,87,179,184,187,188,197. 
  20. ^ Millgate, Michael and Wilson, Keith, Thomas Hardy Reappraised: Essays in Honour of Michael Millgate University of Toronto Press, 2006, 38.
  21. ^ Kolin, Philip C. Shakespeare and Southern Writers: A Study in Influence. University Press of Mississippi. p. 124. 
  22. ^ Gager, Valerie L. (1996). Shakespeare and Dickens: The Dynamics of Influence. Cambridge University Press. p. 251. 
  23. ^ Gager, Valerie L. (1996). Shakespeare and Dickens: The Dynamics of Influence. Cambridge University Press. p. 186. 
  24. ^ Bryant, John. "Moby Dick as Revolution" The Cambridge Companion to Herman Melville Robert Steven Levine (editor). Cambridge University Press, 1998, page 82.
  25. ^ a b Dotterer, Ronald L. (1989). Shakespeare: Text, Subtext, and Context. Susquehanna University Press. p. 108. 
  26. ^ Introduction to Hamlet by William Shakespeare, Barron's Educational Series, 2002, page 12.
  27. ^ Lynch, Jack. Samuel Johnson's Dictionary: Selections from the 1755 Work that Defined the English Language. Delray Beach, FL: Levenger Press (2002), page 12.
  28. ^ Mabillard, Amanda. Why Study Shakespeare? Shakespeare Online. 20 Aug 2000. (date when you accessed the information) < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/biography/whystudyshakespeare.html >.
  29. ^ a b c Fidel Fajardo-Acosta (29 October 1997). "Middle English". Creighton University Department of English. 
  30. ^ "Words Shakespeare Invented: List of Words Shakespeare Invented". Nosweatshakespeare.com. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  31. ^ "Words Shakespeare Invented". Shakespeare-online.com. 20 August 2000. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  32. ^ "Phrases coined by William Shakespeare". The Phrase Finder. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  33. ^ "Shakespeare's Coined Words Now Common Currency". National Geographic Society. 22 April 2004. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  34. ^ A.W. Ward, A.R. Waller, W.P. Trent, J. Erskine, S.P. Sherman, and C. Van Doren, ed. (1907–21/2000). "XX. The Language from Chaucer to Shakespeare – 11. Elizabethan English as a literary medium". The Cambridge history of English and American literature: An encyclopedia in eighteen volumes. III. Renascence and Reformation. Cambridge, England: University Press. ISBN 1-58734-073-9. 
  35. ^ Jucker, Andreas H. History of English and English Historical Linguistics. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Verlag (2000), page 51.
  36. ^ a b "Shakespeare's Coined Words Now Common Currency". News.nationalgeographic.com. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2011.