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Wosner was born in 1913 in Vienna, Austro-Hungary and studied in the Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin of Poland led by Rabbi Meir Shapiro. He was also a student of Rabbi Shimon of Zelicov who was the official supervisor at the Yeshiva. In Vienna, he had known and befriended the Rabbi Chanoch Dov Padwa of Galicia.
He married and immigrated to Palestine before the Holocaust and dwelled in Jerusalem where he studied at the Dushinsky Yeshiva. It was in that time that, in spite of his young age, he became a member of the Edah HaChareidis. When he relocated to Bnei Brak, upon the incentive of the Chazon Ish, Rabbi Dov Berish Widenfeld of Tshebin, Rabbi Isser Zalman Meltzer and Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog he established his "Yeshiva Chachmei Lublin" bearing the same name as the one in Lublin where he studied in his youth.
He is the author of several works of Jewish law, such as Shevet HaLevi ("The Tribe of Levi"), a comprehensive series of Halachic rulings and responsa on Jewish laws comprising ten volumes and several other Torah books all bearing the same name.
His sons include Rabbi Chaim Wosner, formerly dayan of London's Satmar community, who has since moved to Bnei Brak to assist his father in the management of the Yeshiva. He has another son Rabbi Bentzion Wosner of Monsey, New York, who is the av bet din of the Shevet Halevi beis din.
On May 20, 2012, Ichud HaKehillos LeTohar HaMachane ran an "asifa" (gathering), at Citifield in New York City, on the dangers of the Internet. There Wosner spoke via live hookup from Israel to 60,000 Orthodox Jews. He banned unfiltered Internet use for the Jewish community and allowed filtered internet only for business purposes.
- "Rabbi Shmuel Wosner Celebrates 100th Birthday". Retrieved 20 January 2014.; 100th birthday on the Jewish calendar on August 8, 2013 (=Elul 2, 5773) means born on Elul 2, 5673 (=September 4, 1913)
- Weisberg, Moshe (2013-09-12). "First time: Hgr"s Vosner will not speak on Shabbos Shuva". Behadrey Haredim. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
- Rav Shmuel Wosner: Can A Baal Korei Read The Torah With A Transparent Overlay
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