Shrines and Temples of Nikkō

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UNESCO World Heritage Site
Shrines and Temples of Nikkō
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Yomeimon gate of Toshogu shrine.
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iv, vi
Reference 913
UNESCO region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1999 (23rd Session)

The UNESCO World Heritage Site Shrines and Temples of Nikkō encompasses 103 buildings or structures and the natural setting around them. It is located in Nikkō, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. The buildings belong to two Shinto shrines (Futarasan Shrine and Tōshō-gū) and one Buddhist temple (Rinnō-ji). Nine of the structures are designated National Treasures of Japan while the remaining 94 are Important Cultural Properties. UNESCO listed the site as World Heritage in 1999.[1][2]

Nominated properties[edit]

Futarasan Shrine[edit]

23 structures of the Futarasan Shrine are included in the nomination. All are registered Important Cultural Properties. They are:[2]

Name Remarks Age Picture
Honden Main building enshrining the three deities of the Futarasan shrine. 1619 Nikko Futarasan Honden M3325.jpg
Karamon Gate in front of the Honden. 1603early Edo period
Wakimon Gate of the Sukibe. 1603early Edo period
Sukibe Roofed wall enclosing the Honden. 1603early Edo period Nikko Futarasan Honden M3325.jpg
Haiden Worship hall. 1645 Nikko Futarasan Jinja M3292.jpg
Torii Copper torii marking the entrance to the shrine. 1799 Nikko-hutarasan-jinja01.jpg
Shinkyō Wooden arched bridge. 1904 NikkoShinkyo5593.jpg
Betsugū Taki-no-o-jinja Honden Building enshrining Tagorihime no Mikoto. 1713
Betsugū Taki-no-o-jinja Karamon Gate of the Betsugū Taki-no-o-jinja Honden. 1740
Betsugū Taki-no-o-jinja Haiden Worship hall. 1713c. 1713
Betsugū Taki-no-o-jinja Rōmon Gate to the Betsugū Taki-no-o-jinja. 1697
Betsugū Taki-no-o-jinja Torii (3 structures) Stone torii at the approach to the Betsugū Taki-no-o-jinja marking the sacred area. 1696, 1779
Betsugū Hongū-jinja Honden Building enshrining Ajisukitakahikone no Mikoto. 1685 Nikko-hutarasan-jinja hongujinja honden2.jpg
Betsugū Hongū-jinja Karamon Gate in front of the Betsugū Hongū-jinja Honden. 1685c. 1685
Betsugū Hongū-jinja Sukibe Roofed wall enclosing the Betsugū Hongū-jinja Honden. 1685c. 1685 Nikko-hutarasan-jinja hongujinja honden1.jpg
Betsugū Hongū-jinja Haiden Worship hall. 1685
Betsugū Hongū-jinja Torii Stone torii at the approach to the Betsugū Hongū-jinja marking the sacred area. 1800
Shin-yosha Storehouse for mikoshi, portable shrines. 1641 Nikko Futarasan Jinja Mikoshi M3299.jpg
Daikokuden Building enshrining Ōkuninushi no Mikoto. 1745 Nikko Futarasan Daikoku M3303.jpg
Massha Mitomo-jinja Honden Building enshrining Sukunabikona no Mikoto. 1751c. 1751–1761 Nikko Futarasan Jinja Mitomo Jinja M3310.jpg
Massha Hie-jinja Honden Building enshrining Ōyamakui no Mikoto. 1648c. 1648–1651 Nikko Futarasan Jinja Hie Jinja M3294.jpg

Tōshō-gū 東照宮[edit]

42 buildings of the Tōshō-gū shrine are included in the nomination. Eight structures are registered National Treasures of Japan and 34 are Important Cultural Properties.[2]

Name Remarks Age Picture
Honden, Ishinoma, Haiden Honden: Building enshrining the deified image of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Tōshō Daigongen.
Ishinoma: Chamber connecting Honden and Haiden.
Haiden: Worship hall.
1636 NikkoKaramonHaidenHonden.jpg
Shōmen Karamon Gate in front of Haiden. Third gate. 1636 NikkoKaramonHaidenHonden.jpg
Haimen Karamon Gate behind Honden. 1636
Tōzai Sukibe Roofed wall enclosing Honden, Ishinoma and Haiden. 1636 NikkoKaramonHaidenHonden.jpg
Yōmeimon Two-storied gate. Second gate. 1636 Nikko Toshogu Yomeimon M3249.jpg
Tōzai Kairō and Kugurimon Roofed cloisters enclosing shrine buildings. 1636 NikkoCarvings5044.jpg
Kamishamusho Building for Shinto services. 1636
Kaguraden Building for the Kagura ritual. 1603early Edo period Nikko Toshogu Kaguraden M3244.jpg
Shin-yosha Storehouse for mikoshi, portable shrines. 1636 Nikko Toshogu Shinyosha M3234.jpg
Shōrō Belfry 1636
Korō Storehouse for drums. 1636
Honjidō Building enshrining Yakushi, the healing Buddha. 1636
Kyōzō Storehouse for sutras. 1636 Nikko Toshogu Kyozo M3098.jpg
Kamijinko Storehouse. 1603early Edo period Nikko Toshogu Kamijinko Shoro M3086.jpg
Nakajinko Storehouse. 1603early Edo period Nikko Toshogu Nakajinko M8481.jpg
Shimojinko Storehouse. 1603early Edo period Nikko Toshogu Shimojinko M8479.jpg
Mizuya Stone building sheltering the water basin. 1636 Nikko Toshogu Suibansha-M8471.jpg
Shinkyū Stable for sacred horses. 1636 NikkoStable5227.jpg
Omotemon First gate. 1636 NikkoToshoguOmotemon5230.jpg
Gojūnotō Five-storied pagoda. 1818 Nikko pagode.jpg
Ishidorii Stone torii at front approach. 1618 Nikko Toshogu Outer Torii M3032.jpg
Sakashitamon Gate at the entrance to the Okusha. 1636
Okusha Hōtō Building enshrining the remains of Tokugawa Ieyasu. 1683 NikkoHoto5147.jpg
Okusha Karamon Gate in front of the Hōtō. 1650
Okusha Ishitamagaki Stonewall enclosing the Okusha. 1603early Edo period
Okusha Haiden Worship hall. 1636
Okusha Dōjinko Treasure storehouse. 1654
Okusha Torii Copper torii at the front approach to the Okusha. 1683c. 1683
Okusha Sekisaku Stone fence along the front approach. 1603early Edo period
Kariden Honden, Ainoma, Haiden Honden: Building enshrining the deified image of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Tōshō Daigongen in case of repair works on the main Honden.

Ainoma: Building connecting the Honden and Haiden.
Haiden: Worship hall.
1639
Kariden Karamon Gate in front of the Kariden Honden. 1603early Edo period
Kariden Sukibe Roofed wall enclosing the Kariden Honden. 1603early Edo period
Kariden Wakimon Gate of the Kariden Sukibe. 1603early Edo period
Kariden Torii Copper torii at the front approach to the Kariden Honden. 1603early Edo period
Kariden Shōrō Belfry. 1603early Edo period
Otabisho Honden Building used in the Togyosai festival. 1685
Otabisho Haiden Worship hall used in the Togyosai festival. 1685c. 1685
Otabisho Shinsenjo Building where sacred food is prepared during the Togyosai festival. 1685c. 1685
Kyūokusha Karamon Stone gate of the Kyūokusha. Reconstructed in a new location after destruction in an earthquake. 1641
Kyūokusha Torii Torii of the Kyūokusha. Reconstructed in a new location after destruction in an earthquake. 1641

Rinnō-ji[edit]

38 buildings of Rinnō-ji temple are included in the nomination. One structure, comprising the Honden, Ainoma and Haiden of the Taiyuin Mausoleum, is a registered National Treasure of Japan and 37 are Important Cultural Properties.[2]

Name Remarks Age Picture
Hon-dō (Sanbutsudō) Buddha hall. 1647 NikkoRinnoji5390.jpg
Sōrintō Copper sutra repository tower. 1643
Hombō Omotemon Front gate of the Hombō. 1700mid Edo period
Kaizandō Founder's hall dedicated to the priest Shōdō. 1720c. 1720
Jōgyōdō Buddha hall enshrining Amida Nyorai. 1649
Hokkedō Buddha hall enshrining Shaka Nyorai. 1649
Jōgyōdō Hokkedō Watarirō Roofed corridor between Hokkedō and Watarirō. 1649
Jigendō Byōdō Building enshrining the remains of the priest Tenkai. 1603early Edo period
Jigendō Haiden Building for worshipping Jigendō. 1649
Jigendō Kyōzō Storehouse for documents collected by the priest Tenkai. 1603early Edo period
Jigendō Shōrō Belfry. 1603early Edo period
Jigendō Amidadō Buddha hall enshrining Amida Nyorai. 1603early Edo period
Kodamadō Buddha hall enshrining Kodama. 1603early Edo period
Gohōtendō Buddha hall enshrining Bishamonten, Benzaiten and Daikokuten. 1615c. 1615–1623
Kannondō Buddha hall enshrining Kanzeon Bosatsu (Avalokiteśvara Kṣitigarbha). 1685
Sanjūnotō Three-storied pagoda. 1685
Taiyuin Mausoleum (Taiyū-in Reibyō): Honden, Ainoma and Haiden Honden: Building enshrining Taiyū-in, the deified image of Tokugawa Iemitsu.
Ainoma: Chamber connecting the Honden and Haiden.
Haiden: Worship hall.
1653 Taiyuin Haiden.jpg
Taiyuin Honden Ai no ma.jpg
Taiyū-in Reibyō Karamon Gate in front of the Taiyū-in Reibyō. 1653 Taiyū-in Reibyō Karamon 20130812.jpg
Taiyū-in Reibyō Mizugaki Roofed wall enclosing the Taiyū-in Reibyō Honden and other structures. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Wakamon Gate of the Taiyū-in Reibyō Mizugaki. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Gokūsho Building used for preparing sacred food. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Gokūsho Watarirō Roofed corridor between the Honden and Gokūsho. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Yashamon Third gate. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Yashamon Sayū Kairō Roofed corridors on both sides of the Yashamon. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Shōrō Belfry. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Korō Storehouse for drums. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Nitemmon Second gate. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Saijō Lavatory for ritual use. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Mizuya Stone column building sheltering the water basin. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Hōko Storehouse. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Niōmon First gate. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Kōkamon Gate at the entrance to the Taiyū-in Reibyō Oku-in. 1653 Taiyuin-DSC3917.jpg
Taiyū-in Reibyō Dōzutsumi Hōzō Copper-plated storehouse. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Oku-in Hōtō Building enshrining the remains of Tokugawa Iemitsu. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Oku-in Inukimon Copper gate in front of the Hōtō. 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Oku-in Haiden Worship hall 1653
Taiyū-in Reibyō Bettōsho Ryūkō-in Management building for Taiyū-in. 1700mid Edo period

Cultural Landscape[edit]

Included in the nomination are the forested mountain slopes on which the buildings are located. The dominating cedar forest was planted in the early 17th century during the construction of the Tōshō-gū. The area where buildings are located is designated as Historic Site. Other parts of the Cultural Landscape are protected within the Nikkō National Park.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b ICOMOS (September 1999). Advisory Body Evaluation. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  2. ^ a b c d Agency for Cultural Affairs (June 22, 1998). Shrines and Temples of Nikko — WHC Nomination Documentation. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°45′23″N 139°35′58″E / 36.7565°N 139.5994°E / 36.7565; 139.5994