The main contribution comes from the proton-proton reaction. The reaction is:
or in words:
From this reaction, 86% of all solar neutrinos are produced. As seen in figure, Solar neutrinos (proton-proton chain) in the Standard Solar Model, the deuterium will fuse with another proton to create a 3He atom and a gamma ray. This reaction can be seen as:
The isotope 4He can be produced by using the 3He in the previous reaction which is seen below.
With both helium-3 and helium-4 in the system now, beryllium can be fused by the reaction of one of each helium atom as seen in the reaction:
Since there are four protons and only three neutrons, the beryllium can go down two different paths from here. The beryllium could capture an electron and produce a lithium-7 atom and an electron neutrino. It can also capture a proton due to the abundance in a star. This will create boron-8. Both reactions are as seen below respectfully:
This reaction produces 14% of the solar neutrinos. The lithium-7 will combine with a proton to produce 2 atoms of helium-4.
The boron-8 will beta(+) decay into beryllium-8 due to the extra proton which can be seen below:
The reaction produces about 0.02% of the solar neutrinos. These few solar neutrinos have the larger energies.
The highest flux of solar neutrinos come directly from the proton-proton interaction, and have a low energy, up to 400 keV. There are also several other significant production mechanisms, with energies up to 18 MeV. From the Earth, the amount of neutrino flux at Earth is around 7·1010 particles/(cm2/s).
The number of neutrinos can be predicted by the Standard Solar Model. The detected number of electron neutrinos was only 1/3 of the predicted number, and this was known as the solar neutrino problem. It led to the idea of neutrino oscillation and the fact that neutrinos can change flavour. This was confirmed when the total flux of solar neutrinos of all types was measured and it agreed with the earlier predictions of expected electron neutrino flux, as seen by Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, and thus confirmed that neutrinos have mass.
The energy spectrum of solar neutrinos is also predicted by solar models. It is essential to know this energy spectrum because different neutrino detection experiments are sensitive to different neutrino energy ranges. The Homestake Experiment used chlorine and was most sensitive to solar neutrinos produced by the decay of the beryllium isotope 7Be. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is most sensitive to solar neutrinos produced by 8B. The detectors that use gallium are most sensitive to the solar neutrinos produced by the proton-proton chain reaction process. In 2012 the collaboration known as Borexino reported detecting low-energy neutrinos for the proton-electron-proton (pep reaction) that produces 1 in 400 deuterium nuclei in the sun. The detector contained 100 metric tons of liquid and saw on average 3 events each day (due to carbon 11 production) from this relatively uncommon thermonuclear reaction.
Neutrinos can trigger nuclear reactions. By looking at ancient ores of various ages that have been exposed to solar neutrinos over geologic time, it may be possible to interrogate the luminosity of the Sun over time, which, according to the Standard Solar Model, has changed with time.
- Grupen, Claus (2006), Astroparticle Physics, Springer, ISBN 3-540-25312-2[page needed]
- Bellerive, A. (2004), "Review of solar neutrino experiments", Int. J. Mod. Phys. A19: 1167–1179, arXiv:hep-ex/0312045, doi:10.1142/S0217751X04019093
- Grupen 2006[page needed]
- Solar Neutrino Viewgraphs
- Bellini, G.; et al (2012), "First Evidence of pep Solar Neutrinos by Direct Detection in Borexino", Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (5), doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.051302, 051302. 6 pages; preprint on arXiv
- Witze, Alexandra (March 10, 2012), "Elusive solar neutrinos spotted, detection reveals more about reaction that powers sun", Science News 181 (5): 14