Soldati-class destroyer

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Artigliere AWM-305865.jpg
Destroyer Artigliere
Class overview
Operators:  Regia Marina
 Marina Militare
 French Navy
 Soviet Navy
Preceded by: Oriani class destroyer
Succeeded by: Comandanti Medaglie d'Oro class destroyer
Built: 1938–1943
In commission: 1939–1965
Completed: 19
Lost: 10
General characteristics (1st series, As built)[1]
Type: Destroyer
Displacement: 1,620 long tons (1,650 t) standard
2,550 long tons (2,590 t) full load
Length: 106.7 m (350 ft 1 in) overall
101.6 m (333 ft 4 in) pp
Beam: 10.15 m (33 ft 4 in)
Draught: 3.15 m (10 ft 4 in)
Installed power: 48,000 shp (35,800 kW)
Propulsion: 2 shaft Belluzzo or Parsons type turbines
3 Yarrow type boilers
Speed: 38 knots (44 mph; 70 km/h)
Range: 2,200 nmi (4,100 km) at 20 kn (23 mph; 37 km/h)
Complement: 206
Armament: • 4 × 120 mm (4.7 in)/50 calibre guns (2×2)
• 1 × 120 mm (4.7 in) 15 calibre starshell gun
• 12 × 13.2 mm machine guns
• 6 × 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes )
• 48 mines

The Soldati class (also known as Camicia Nera class, meaning Blackshirt) were a group of destroyers built for the Italian Navy during World War II. The ships were named after military professions (Artigliere, for example, meaning "artilleryman"). There were two batches; twelve ships were built in 1938-39, and a second batch of seven ships were ordered in 1942, although only five were completed.

Ten ships of the class were lost during the war. Of the survivors three were transferred to the French Navy and two to the Soviet Navy as war reparations, while two served in the Italian post-war navy, the Marina Militare.

Design[edit]

In 1936, the Italian Regia Marina placed an order for twelve examples of a new destroyer design, the "Soldati" class. The design was essentially a repeat of the previous Oriani destroyer design, which was itself a development of the Maestrale class destroyers. The design featured an identical main gun armament of four 120 mm 50 calibre guns in two twin turrets, one forward and one aft, while torpedo armament was two triple 21 inches (530 mm) torpedo tubes. A short (15 calibre) 120 mm gun[2] was mounted on a pedestal between the banks of torpedo tubes for firing starshell, while the anti-aircraft armament consisted of twelve 13.2 mm machine guns. A single ship (Carabinare) was completed with a fifth 120 mm 50 calibre gun replacing the starshell gun.[2] The ships' powerplant, with two geared steam turbines driving two shafts and generating 48,000 shaft horsepower (36,000 kW), and with one large funnel, was similar to that in the Orinai class and was sufficient to propel the destroyers to 38 knots (70 km/h; 44 mph).[3][4]

Orders for a second batch of seven destroyers were placed in 1940. All except one of these ships were to carry the five main gun armament of Carabinare.[4][nb 1]

Construction and modifications[edit]

The first batch of ships were laid down in 1937, being completed between 1938 and 1939,[1] with the second batch being laid down in 1940–1941, with five completing in 1942.[5]

Four more of the first batch (Ascari, Camicia Nera, Geniere and Lanciere) were modified in 1941–42 by replacing the starshell gun with a full power 120 mm gun.[4] The anti-aircraft machine guns were gradually replaced by 20 mm cannon.with up to 10–12 being fitted by 1943. Five ships (Carabiniere, Granatiere, Fuciliere, Legionario and Velite) had the aft set of torpedo tubes replaced by two 37 mm cannon, while Fuciliere and Velite also had their star shell guns replaced by a further pair of 37 mm cannon.[4][6] Fuciliere and Velite were fitted with Italian radar, while Legionario was fitted with a German radar.[6]

The Germans captured Squadrista incomplete in September 1943, and transferred the ship, renamed TA33 to Genoa for completion as a fighter direction ship carrying a long-range Freya radar and German 105 mm and 20 mm guns, but was sunk by Allied bombiing in 1944.[7]

The two destroyers remaining in Italian service after the war were rebuilt as anti-submarine escorts in 1953–54, with their torpedo tubes removed and the anti-aircraft armament changed to six 40 mm guns.[8]

Ships[edit]

Batch 1[edit]

Builder Namesake Laid Down Launched Commissioned Fate
Alpino CNR Ancona [1] Alpini military corps 2 May 1937[1] 18 September 1938[1] 20 April 1939[1] Lost 19 April 1943 when it was bombed by the US Air Force in La Spezia Harbour.[3]
Artigliere OTO Livorno[1] Gunner 15 February 1937 [1] 12 December 1937 [1] 14 November 1938 [1] Lost 13 October 1940, sunk by HMS York after being damaged at the Battle of Cape Passero the previous day.[9] 122 survivors, the 132 casualties included the CO, Captain Carlo Margottini.
Ascari OTO Livorno[1] Ascari (Colonial Soldier) 11 December 1937[1] 31 July 1938[1] 6 May 1939[1] Sank 24 March 1943 after striking three mines during a troop transport mission from Palermo to Tunis, 194 out of 247 crew, including CO Commander Mario Gerini, lost together with some 200-300 German troops.[3]
Aviere OTO Livorno[1] Airmen 16 January 1937[1] 19 September 1937[1] 31 August 1937 Torpedoed and sunk by the British submarine HMS Splendid (P228) on 17 December 1942 during an escort mission from Naples to Biserte, 220 crew lost including CO Captain Ignazio Castrogiovanni,[4] 30 survivors.
Bersagliere CNR Palermo[1] Bersaglieri 21 April 1937[1] 3 July 1938[1] 1 April 1939[1] Lost on 7 January 1943 after being bombed in Palermo harbour.[4] 59 casualties.
Camicia Nera
(renamed Artigliere 30 July 1943[10])
OTO Livorno[1] Blackshirt 21 January 1937[1] 8 August 1937[1] 30 June 1938[1] Survived the war, given to the Soviet Navy as war reparations as Lovky (Russian: Ловкий). Retired 1960.[11]
Carabiniere CT Riva Trigoso[1] Carabinieri[1] 1 February 1937[1] 23 July 1938[1] 20 December 1938[1] Survived the war and served in the post war Italian Navy (Marina Militare), being decommissioned on 18 January 1965.[3]
Corazziere OTO Livorno[1] Cuirassier 7 October 1937[1] 22 May 1938[1] 4 March 1939[1] Scuttled 9 September 1943 at Genoa following Italian Armistice. Raised by Germans but sunk by air raid 4 September 1944.[3]
Fuciliere CNR Ancona[1] Fusilier 2 May 1937[1] 31 July 1938[1] 10 January 1939 Survived the war, given to the Soviet Navy as war reparations, serving as Lyogky (Russian: Лёгкий). Retired 1960.[12]
Geniere OTO Livorno[1] Engineer 26 August 1937[1] 27 February 1938[1] 14 December 1938[1] Sunk 1 March 1943 by USAAF bombing while in drydock in Palermo.[3][13]
Granatiere CNR Palermo[1] Grenadier 5 April 1937[1] 24 April 1938[1] 1 February 1939[1] Survived the war and served in the post war Italian Navy. Stricken 1 July 1958.[3]
Lanciere ST Riva Trigoso[1] Lancer 1 February 1937[1] 18 December 1937[1] 25 March 1939[1] Capsized and sank 23 March 1942 in heavy storm following Second Battle of Sirte.[3][4] 16 survivors including one who died later, the 226 casualties included the CO, Commander Costanzo Casana.

Batch 2[edit]

Builder Namesake Laid Down Launched Commissioned Fate
Bombardiere CNR Ancona[5] Bomber 7 October 1940[5] 23 March 1942[5] 15 July 1942[5] Torpedoed and sunk 17 January 1943 by British submarine United during an escort mission from Bizerte to Palermo, 175 crew killed, including CO Commander Giuseppe Moschini, and 49 survivors.[14]
Carrista OTO Livorno[5] Tank crew 11 September 1941[5] - - Captured on slipway by Germans following Italian armistice.
Given prospective name TA34 but scrapped incomplete.[5][7]
Corsaro OTO Livorno[5] Corsair 23 January 1941[5] 16 November 1941[5] 16 May 1942[5] Sunk 9 January 1943 on mines laid by HMS Abdiel[5] during an escort mission from Naples to Bizerte, 187 crew lost and 48 survivors including the CO, Commander Ferruccio Ferrini.
Legionario OTO Livorno[5] Legionnaire 21 October 1940[5] 16 April 1941[5] 1 March 1942[5] Joined Allies 1943.
Transferred to France as war reparation 15 August 1948.
Renamed Duchaffault. Stricken 12 June 1954.[5][15]
Mitragliere CNR Ancona[5] Machine gunner 7 October 1940[5] 28 September 1941[5] 1 February 1942 Interned Port Mahon, Majorca 1943. To Allies 1944.
To France as Jurien de la Gravière on 8 August 1948. Stricken 12 June 1954.[5][15]
Squadrista OTO Livorno[5] Fascist squad man 4 September 1941[5] 12 September 1942[5] - Captured incomplete by Germany September 1943. Towed to Genoa for completion as TA 33.
Sank 4 September 1944 by allied bombs while undergoing trials at La Spezia.[5][7]
Velite OTO Livorno[5] Veles 19 April 1941[5] 31 August 1941[5] 31 August 1942[5] Badly damaged by torpedo from submarine HMS P228 on 21 November 1942. Repaired and joined Allies 1943.
Transferred to France as Duperré on 24 July 1948. Stricken 1961.[5][15]

See also[edit]

Media related to Soldati class destroyer (1938) at Wikimedia Commons

References[edit]

  1. ^ Velite was completed with the starshell gun.[5]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Whitley 2000, p. 168.
  2. ^ a b Campbell, pp.335-338
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Whitley 2000, pp. 169–170.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Gardiner and Chesneau 1980, p. 301.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Whitley 2000, p. 171.
  6. ^ a b Whitley 2000, pp. 170–171.
  7. ^ a b c Whitley 2000, p. 80.
  8. ^ Gardiner and Chumbley 1995, p. 200.
  9. ^ http://www.navyhistory.org.au/category/navy-day-by-day/1940/page/3/
  10. ^ Whitley 2000, p. 170.
  11. ^ http://navsource.narod.ru/photos/03/358/index.html
  12. ^ http://navsource.narod.ru/photos/03/359/index.html
  13. ^ Rohwer and Hümmelchen 1992, p. 197.
  14. ^ Whitley 2000, pp. 171–172.
  15. ^ a b c Gardiner and Chumbley 1995, p. 109.
  • Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4. 
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger (1980). Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7. 
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chumbley, Stephen (1995). Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-132-7. 
  • Rohwer, Jürgen; Hümmelchen, Gerhard (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-117-7. 
  • Whitley, M.H. (2000). Destroyers of World War 2: An International Encyclopedia. Cassell Publishing. ISBN 1-85409-521-8. 
  • page from Uboat.net