Sophora

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Sophora
Starr 081014-0282 Sophora chrysophylla.jpg
Sophora chrysophylla flowers and leaves
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Sophoreae[1]
Genus: Sophora
L.
Type species
Sophora tomentosa
L.[2]
Species

59–116; see text.

Synonyms[3]
  • Cephalostigmaton (Yakovlev) Yakovlev
  • Echinosophora Nakai
  • Edwardsia Salisb.
  • Goebelia Bunge ex Boiss.
  • Keyserlingia Bunge ex Boiss.
  • Patrinia Raf.
  • Pseudosophora Sweet
  • Radiusia Reichb.
  • Vexibia Raf.
  • Vibexia Raf.
  • Zanthyrsis Raf.

Sophora is a genus of about 45 species of small trees and shrubs in the pea family Fabaceae. The species are native to southeast Europe, southern Asia, Australasia, various Pacific islands, western South America, the western United States,[4] Florida[5] and Puerto Rico. The generic name is derived from sophera, an Arabic name for a pea-flowered tree.[6]

The genus formerly had a broader interpretation including many other species now treated in other genera, notably Styphnolobium (pagoda tree genus), which differs in lacking nitrogen fixing bacteria (rhizobia) on the roots, and Dermatophyllum (the mescalbeans). Styphnolobium has galactomannans as seed polysaccharide reserve, in contrast Sophora contains arabinogalactans, and Dermatophyllum amyloid.

The New Zealand Sophora species are known as Kowhai.[7]

The Toromiro (Sophora toromiro) was formerly a common tree in the forests of Easter Island. The tree fell victim to the deforestation that eliminated the island's forests by the 18th century, and later became extinct in the wild. The tree is being reintroduced to the island in a scientific project partly led jointly by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Göteborg Botanical Garden, where the only remaining plants of this species with a documented origin were propagated in the 1960s from seeds collected by Thor Heyerdahl.

Mayo or Mayú (Sophora macrocarpa) is a small tree that inhabits the Chilean Matorral.

Species[edit]

Sophora comprises the following species:[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status[edit]

The status of the following species is unresolved:[14]

  • Sophora albicans J.St.-Hil.
  • Sophora ambigua P.C.Tsoong
  • Sophora angulata (Hook. & Arn.) Ravenna
  • Sophora angustifoliola Q.Q.Liu & H.Y.Ye
  • Sophora biflora Houtt.
  • Sophora biflora Retz.
  • Sophora buxifolia Retz.
  • Sophora chathamica Cockayne
  • Sophora coerulea Moench
  • Sophora cuneifolia Steud.
  • Sophora davidii (Franch.) Skeels
  • Sophora donihuensis Ravenna
  • Sophora fulvida (Allan) Heenan & de Lange
  • Sophora genistaefolia Salisb.
  • Sophora genistoides L.
  • Sophora glabra Moench
  • Sophora glabra Hassk.
  • Sophora godleyi Heenan & de Lange
  • Sophora grandiflora (Salisb.) Skottsb.
  • Sophora grisea O.Deg. & Sherff
  • Sophora hirsuta Aiton
  • Sophora houghiana Wall.
  • Sophora howinsula (W.R.B. Oliv.) P. Green
  • Sophora jabandas Montrouz.
  • Sophora juncea Schrad.
  • Sophora ludovice-Adecim-Asexta Buc'hoz
  • Sophora mangarevaensis H.St.John
  • Sophora mecosperma J.St.-Hil.
  • Sophora molloyi Heenan & de Lange
  • Sophora molokaiensis O. Degener & I. Degener
  • Sophora mutabilis Salisb.
  • Sophora myrtillifolia Retz.
  • Sophora oblongata P.C.Tsoong
  • Sophora oblongifolia Ruiz & Pav.
  • Sophora oligophylla Baker
  • Sophora pendula Spach
  • Sophora pentaphylla Desv.
  • Sophora persica (Boiss. & Buhse) Rech.f.
  • Sophora praetorulosa Chun & T.C. Chen
  • Sophora raivavaeensis H.St.John
  • Sophora rapaensis H.St.John
  • Sophora robinoides Walp.
  • Sophora senegalensis Deless. ex DC.
  • Sophora sibirica Holub
  • Sophora sinica Rosier
  • Sophora sinuata Larrañaga
  • Sophora sororia Hance
  • Sophora sumatrana Yakovlev
  • Sophora sylvatica Burch.
  • Sophora tetraptera J. Miller
  • Sophora tiloebsis Blume ex Miq.
  • Sophora tiloensis Blume ex Miq.
  • Sophora trifolia Steud.
  • Sophora triphylla Sweet
  • Sophora vanioti H. Lév.
  • Sophora vestita Nakai
  • Sophora viciifolis Hance

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  2. ^ "Sophora L.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  3. ^ "Genus: Sophora L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-11-03. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  4. ^ "PLANTS Profile Sophora nuttalliana B.L. Turner silky sophora". USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  5. ^ "PLANTS Profile Sophora tomentosa L.yellow necklacepod". USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  6. ^ Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Plants (4 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-521-86645-3. 
  7. ^ a b Heenan PB, de Lange PJ, Wilton AD. (2001). "Sophora (Fabaceae) in New Zealand: taxonomy, distribution, and biogeography". New Zealand J Bot 39 (1): 17–53. doi:10.1080/0028825X.2001.9512715. 
  8. ^ Tsoong P-C, Ma C-Y. (1981). "A study on the genus Sophora Linn.". Acta Phytotaxon Sin 19 (1): 1–22. 
  9. ^ Tsoong P-C, Ma C-Y. (1981). "A study on the genus Sophora Linn. (Cont.)". Acta Phytotaxon Sin 19 (2): 143–167. 
  10. ^ Hurr KA, Lockhart PJ, Heenan PB, Penny D. (1999). "Evidence for the recent dispersal of Sophora (Leguminosae) around the Southern Oceans: molecular data". J Biogeog 26 (3): 565–577. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00302.x. JSTOR 2656144. 
  11. ^ Michell AB, Heenan PB. (2002). "Sophora sect. Edwardsia (Fabaceae): further evidence from nrDNA sequence data of a recent and rapid radiation around the Southern Oceans". Bot J Linn Soc 140 (4): 435–441. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2002.00101.x. 
  12. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Sophora". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 18 May 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  13. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Sophora". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  14. ^ a b "The Plant List entry for Sophora". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  15. ^ Heenan PB. (2001). "The correct name for Chilean pelú (Fabaceae): the identity of Edwardsia macnabiana and the reinstatement of Sophora cassioides". New Zealand J Bot 39 (1): 167–170. doi:10.1080/0028825X.2001.9512725. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Sophora at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Sophora at Wikispecies