Spanish reconquest of Mexico
|Spanish Reconquest attempts in Mexico|
|Part of Spanish American wars of independence|
Battle of Pueblo Viejo
|Commanders and leaders|
| Anastasio Bustamante
Antonio López de Santa Anna
| Isidro Barradas
José María Coppinger
Melitón Pérez del Camino
The Spanish reconquest attempts in Mexico (Spanish: Intentos de Reconquista española en México) were episodes of war in Mexico that were comprised in clashes between the newly born Mexican nation and Spain, mainly covered two periods first attempts from 1821 to 1825 and the defense of territorial waters and second period divided into two stages includes the Mexican expansion plan to take Cuba between 1826 and 1828 and the 1829 expedition of Spanish General Isidro Barradas on Mexican soil. Although the Spanish never regained the country they did damage the fledging economy.
The newly independent Mexico was in dire and harrowing straits after 11 years of its war of independence. There were no clear plans nor guidelines prepared by the independentists. Internal struggles ensued for better government systems. Mexico was beset with a complete lack of funds with a responsibility to control a country of over 4.5 million km², internal rebellions that emerged and the threat of the proximity of Spanish forces from its base in Cuba.
The independence declared on September 16, 1810 was officially achieved on September 27, 1821, under the Treaty of Córdoba. Spain did not recognize the treaties arguing that the viceroy Juan O'Donoju had no authority to recognize the independence of any overseas province. This situation represented a great danger to the newly acquired status of the nation, without recognition of any of the great powers that could support it, the threat of Spanish reconquest was great concern to the rulers of that time. On May 13, 1822 decrees were issued by the government giving prison sentences to anyone who conspired against Mexico's independence.
In addition, the main maritime entrance of Mexico, the port of San Juan de Ulúa remained under the dominion of the Spanish.
San Juan de Ulúa 
Gen. José García Dávila who was the governor of the Spanish crown in Veracruz had been committed with General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to surrender the port to the Mexicans, however, the night before the appointed day, on October 26, 1821, he moved to the castle of San Juan de Ulúa with 200 infantry, all the artillery and ammunition from the port, and over 90 thousand pesos of the Spanish government. Soon the number of soldiers increased to 2,000 troops sent by Spain from Cuba for the purpose of the reconquest of Mexico. Since the Mexican army did not have enough weapons and ships, the emperor Agustín de Iturbide opted for negotiations with the Spanish. Although no favourable agreement was met, an ineasy peace continued to exist between the two factions.
The arrival of then Brigadier General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to the government of the city on September 10, 1822, marks another episode of negotiations between the Mexican authorities of Veracruz and the Spanish of San Juan de Ulua; where these become critical, even more so when the Spanish government relieved of his charge to Gen. Davila to put in place to Brigadier General Francisco Lemaur. The Mexican government aware of the lack of boats decided to create a naval force whose aim was to defeat the Spanish garrison which was in Ulua, mainly through the blockade. In 1822 it acquired from the U.S.A. and then in United Kingdom, the first ships of which starts the Mexican Navy.
Despite the internal problems in Mexico, the overthrow of the empire and the establishment of the Republic, the sight of the Mexicans on Ulua remained fixed. The talks were aggravated while the September 25, 1823, the Spanish bombed the port of Veracruz, causing the displacement of more than 6,000 civilians had left the port.
The capitulation of San Juan de Ulua 
||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: the section is awkwardly written in general -- in particular, the second sentence has no verb.. (July 2012)|
After the bombing of the port by the Spanish, the Mexican government decided to end the Spanish conquest attempts. Although at the time Mexico didn't have a proper navy, on October 8, 1823 the decree of blockade was planned on San Juan de Ulua. To meet the objective, then Secretary of War and Navy, José Joaquín de Herrera was presented to the First Congress of Mexico expressed the urgency for the nation was the acquisition of more warships to block and attack the Spanish who were in the fortress.
On January 28, 1825, General Francisco Lemaur was relieved of command of San Juan de Ulua by Joseph Coppinger. On July 27, 1825, the frigate captain Pedro Sainz de Baranda was appointed commander of Navy in the port of Veracruz, who immediately dedicated himself to reorganize the squadron was commissioned for the blockade of San Juan De Ulua.
Ulua was forced to surrender to the effectiveness of blocking and receiving little help from Havana. As Coppinger requested the suspension of hostilities and to negotiate arrangements for the surrender. The problem had started on 26 October 1821, was concluded by the Mexican Navy, which did capitulate to last Spanish stronghold in Mexico on November 23, 1825.
Protection of the seas and ambitions in Cuba 
The Mexican government led by Guadalupe Victoria came to the conclusion that Spain by not recognizing the treaties posed a threat, and could use Cuba as platform to recover Mexico. Lucas Alaman, who was the then Minister of Foreign Affairs in Mexico, assessed the threat posed by Cuba for Mexico. Since 1824, Lucas Alaman held the idea that Mexico should take over Cuba, arguing that "Cuba without Mexico is aimed at imperialist yoke; Mexico without Cuba is a prisoner of the Gulf of Mexico." He believed that the Mexican forces, with the support of foreign powers such as France or England (Which had been the first European power to recognize the independence of Mexico on July 16, 1836), could beat the Spanish in Cuba.
The United States insisted upon the retention of Cuba by the Spanish government. In furtherance of Mexican ambitions to control the island of Cuba and to prevent Spanish reconquest, the Mexican government employed Commodore David Porter of the United States to command the Mexican navy in order to attack maritime lines of Spain to the island of Cuba in an effort to protect Mexican seas and intent on seizing the island to promote the ongoing successful independence movement. Thus began patrols of the Mexican squad in Spanish waters which culminated in the unsuccessful Battle of Mariel on February 10, 1828 after Porter had died. Frigate Captain David Dixon Porter, nephew of Porter and Union hero of the American Civil War, after claiming attacks against him, returned to the United States.
Battle of Tampico 
One year after the Battle of Mariel, there was a new attempt at reconquest by Spain, from Cuba, confirming the suspicions of the Mexican authorities. Spain appointed Gen. Isidro Barradas, who left the port with 3,586 soldiers with the name "Spearhead Division" and on July 5, went to Mexico. The fleet consisted of a flagship, called the Sovereign, two frigates, two gunships and 15 transport ships, each commanded by Admiral Laborde.
On July 26, 1829 the fleet arrived in Cabo Rojo, near Tampico (State of Tamaulipas), and from there began its operations on 27 trying to land 750 troops and 25 boats. The expedition began their advance towards Tampico while the boats were moored at the Pánuco River. The Battle of Pueblo Viejo, which developed between 10 and September 11, 1829 marked the end of the Spanish conquest attempts in Mexico. General Isidro Barradas signed the capitulation of Pueblo Viejo, in the presence of generals Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Manuel Mier y Teran and Felipe de la Garza.
Finally On December 28, 1836, Spain recognized the independence of Mexico under the treaty Santa Maria-Calatrava, signed in Madrid by the Mexican Commissioner Miguel Santa Maria and the Spanish state minister Jose Maria Calatrava. Mexico was the first former colony whose independence was recognized by Spain; the second was Ecuador on February 16, 1840.
See also 
- History of Mexico
- Reconquista (Mexico)
- List of wars involving Mexico
- Mexican War of Independence
- Spanish American wars of independence
- "El Rey de España que no ha otorgado facultades a O'Donojú para reconocer la independencia de Provincia alguna en ultramar." (in Spanish).
- "Decreto. Pena impuesta por delito de conspiración contra la independencia" (in Spanish).
- González Pedrero, Enrique, Op.cit. p.223-236
- "Organizacion de la escuadrilla naval Mexicana que llevo a cabo la consolidacion de la independencia Nacional" (in Spanish).
- González Pedrero, Harry,Op.cit. p.223-236
- "La consolidacion de la independencia Nacional" (in Spanish).
- "La Consolidacion de la independencia Nacional" (in Spanish).
- "Fechas históricas de México" (in Spanish).
- Ruiz Gordejuela Urquijo, Jesús Op.cit. p.153-156
- Ruiz Gordejuela Urquijo, Jesús Op.cit. p.156-160
- "Fechas históricas de México" (in Spanish).
- "Tratado Definitivo de Paz entre Mexico y España" (in Spanish).
- GONZÁLEZ PEDRERO, Enrique (1993) País de un solo hombre: el México de Santa Anna México, ed.Fondo de Cultura Económica, ISBN 978-968-16-3962-4 URL accessed September 27, 2009
- Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, Asociación de amigos del Museo Nacional de las Intervenciones, Museo Nacional de las Intervenciones (2007) Las intervenciones extranjeras en México 1825-1916, Cuernavaca, ed. Servicios Gráficos de Morelos, ISBN 978-968-03-0283-3
- RUIZ GORDEJUELA URQUIJO, Jesús (2006) La expulsión de los españoles de México y su destino incierto, 1821-1836 Sevilla, ed.Universidad de Sevilla ISBN 978-84-00-08467-7 URL accessed September 27, 2009
- SIMS, Harold (1984) La reconquista de México: la historia de los atentados españoles, 1821-1830, México, ed. Fondo de Cultura Económica, URL accessed September 27, 2009