Spinal manipulation is a therapeutic intervention performed on spinal articulations which are synovial joints. These articulations in the spine that are amenable to spinal manipulative therapy include the z-joints, the atlanto-occipital, atlanto-axial, lumbosacral, sacroiliac, costotransverse and costovertebral joints. National guidelines come to different conclusions with respect to spinal manipulation with some not recommending it, some describing manipulation as optional, and others recommending a short course in those who do not improve with other treatments.
Spinal manipulation is a therapeutic intervention that has roots in traditional medicine and has been used by various cultures, apparently for thousands of years. Hippocrates, the "father of medicine" used manipulative techniques, as did the ancient Egyptians and many other cultures. A modern re-emphasis on manipulative therapy occurred in the late 19th century in North America with the emergence of osteopathic and chiropractic medicine. Spinal manipulative therapy gained recognition by mainstream medicine during the 1960s.
Current providers 
Spinal manipulation is now most commonly provided various health care disciplines. In North America, it is most commonly performed by chiropractors, osteopathic physicians, occupational therapists and physical therapists. In Europe, chiropractors, osteopaths and physiotherapists are the majority providers, although the precise figure varies between countries.
Manipulation is known by several other names. The British orthopaedic surgeon A. S. Blundell Bankart used the term "manipulation" in his text Manipulative Surgery. Chiropractors often refer to manipulation of a spinal joint as an 'adjustment'. Following the labelling system developed by Geoffery Maitland, manipulation is synonymous with Grade V mobilization. Because of its distinct biomechanics (see section below), the term high velocity low amplitude (HVLA) thrust is often used interchangeably with manipulation.
Until recently, force-time histories measured during spinal manipulation were described as consisting of three distinct phases: the preload (or prethrust) phase, the thrust phase, and the resolution phase[jargon]. Evans and Breen added a fourth ‘orientation’ phase to describe the period during which the patient is orientated into the appropriate position in preparation for the prethrust phase.
The kinematics of a complete spinal motion segment, when one of its constituent spinal joints is manipulated, are much more complex than the kinematics that occur during manipulation of an independent peripheral synovial joint.
Suggested mechanisms of action and clinical effects 
The effects of spinal manipulation have been shown to include:
- Temporary relief of musculoskeletal pain
- Temporary increase in passive range of motion (ROM)
- Physiological effects on the central nervous system, probably at the segmental level
- Altered sensorimotor integration
- No alteration of the position of the sacroiliac joint
Back pain 
A 2004 Cochrane review found that spinal manipulation (SM) was no more or less effective than other commonly used therapies such as pain medication, physical therapy, exercises, back school or the care given by a general practitioner. A 2010 systematic review found that most studies suggest SM achieves equal or superior improvement in pain and function when compared with other commonly used interventions for short, intermediate, and long-term follow-up. In 2007 the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society jointly recommended that clinicians consider spinal manipulation for patients who do not improve with self care options. Reviews published in 2008 and 2006 suggested that SM for low back pain was equally effective as other commonly used interventions. A 2007 literature synthesis found good evidence supporting SM and mobilization for low back pain. Of four systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2005, one recommended SM and three stated that there was insufficient evidence to make recommendations.
Neck pain 
For neck pain manipulation and mobilization produce similar changes, and manual therapy and exercise are more effective than other strategies. There is moderate- to high-quality evidence that subjects with chronic neck pain not due to whiplash and without arm pain and headaches show clinically important improvements from a course of spinal manipulation or mobilization. There is not enough evidence to suggest that spinal manipulation is an effective long-term treatment for whiplash although there are short term benefits.
There was some evidence that spinal manipulation improved psychological outcomes compared with verbal interventions.
As with all interventions, there are risks associated with spinal manipulation. Infrequent, but potentially serious side effects, include: vertebrobasilar accidents (VBA), strokes, death, spinal disc herniation, vertebral and rib fractures, and cauda equina syndrome.
In a 1993 study, J.D. Cassidy, DC, and co-workers concluded that the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disk herniation by side posture manipulation is "both safe and effective."
Risks of upper cervical manipulation 
A 1996 Danish chiropractic study confirmed the risk of stroke to be low, and determined that the greatest risk is with manipulation of the first two vertebra of the cervical spine, particularly passive rotation of the neck, known as the "master cervical" or "rotary break."
Serious complications after manipulation of the cervical spine are estimated to be 1 in 4 million manipulations or fewer. A RAND Corporation extensive review estimated "one in a million." Dvorak, in a survey of 203 practitioners of manual medicine in Switzerland, found a rate of one serious complication per 400,000 cervical manipulations, without any reported deaths, among an estimated 1.5 million cervical manipulations. Jaskoviak reported approximately 5 million cervical manipulations from 1965 to 1980 at The National College of Chiropractic Clinic in Chicago, without a single case of vertebral artery stroke or serious injury. Henderson and Cassidy performed a survey at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College outpatient clinic where more than a half-million treatments were given over a nine-year period, again without serious incident. Eder offered a report of 168,000 cervical manipulations over a 28 year period, again without a single significant complication. After an extensive literature review performed to formulate practice guidelines, the authors concurred that "the risk of serious neurological complications (from cervical manipulation) is extremely low, and is approximately one or two per million cervical manipulations."
Understandably, vascular accidents are responsible for the major criticism of spinal manipulative therapy. However, it has been pointed out that "critics of manipulative therapy emphasize the possibility of serious injury, especially at the brain stem, due to arterial trauma after cervical manipulation. It has required only the very rare reporting of these accidents to malign a therapeutic procedure that, in experienced hands, gives beneficial results with few adverse side effects". In very rare instances, the manipulative adjustment to the cervical spine of a vulnerable patient becomes the final intrusive act which results in a very serious consequence.
Edzard Ernst has written:
- "...there is little evidence to demonstrate that spinal manipulation has any specific therapeutic effects. On the other hand, there is convincing evidence to show that it is associated with frequent, mild adverse effects as well as with serious complications of unknown incidence. Therefore, it seems debatable whether the benefits of spinal manipulation outweigh its risks. Specific risk factors for vascular accidents related to spinal manipulation have not been identified, which means that any patient may be at risk, particularly those below 45 years of age. Definitive, prospective studies that can overcome the limitations of previous investigations are now a matter of urgency. Until they are available, clinicians might tell their patients to adopt a cautious approach and avoid the type of spinal manipulation for which the risk seems greatest: forceful manipulation of the upper spine with a rotational element."
In a 2007 followup report in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Ernst concluded: "Spinal manipulation, particularly when performed on the upper spine, is frequently associated with mild to moderate adverse effects. It can also result in serious complications such as vertebral artery dissection followed by stroke. Currently, the incidence of such events is not known. In the interest of patient safety we should reconsider our policy towards the routine use of spinal manipulation."
Potential for incident underreporting 
Statistics on the reliability of incident reporting for injuries related to manipulation of the cervical spine vary. The RAND study assumed that only 1 in 10 cases would have been reported. However, Prof Ernst surveyed neurologists in Britain for cases of serious neurological complications occurring within 24 hours of cervical spinal manipulation by various types of practitioners; 35 cases had been seen by the 24 neurologists who responded, but none of the cases had been reported. He concluded that underreporting was close to 100%, rendering estimates "nonsensical." He therefore suggested that "clinicians might tell their patients to adopt a cautious approach and avoid the type of spinal manipulation for which the risk seems greatest: forceful manipulation of the upper spine with a rotational element." The NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination stated that the survey had methodological problems with data collection. Both NHS and Ernst noted that bias is a problem with the survey method of data collection.
A 2001 study in the journal Stroke found that vertebrobasilar accidents (VBAs) were five times more likely in those aged less than 45 years who had visited a chiropractor in the preceding week, compared to controls who had not visited a chiropractor. No significant associations were found for those over 45 years. The authors concluded: "While our analysis is consistent with a positive association in young adults... The rarity of VBAs makes this association difficult to study despite high volumes of chiropractic treatment." The NHS notes that this study collected data objectively by using administrative data, involving less recall bias than survey studies, but the data were collected retrospectively and probably contained inaccuracies.
In 1996, Coulter et al. had a multidisciplinary group of 4 MDs, 4 DCs and 1 MD/DC look at 736 conditions where it was used. Their job was to evaluate the appropriateness of manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine in those cases (including a few cases not performed by chiropractors).
- "According to the report ... 57.6% of reported indications for cervical manipulation was considered inappropriate, with 31.3% uncertain. Only 11.1% could be labeled appropriate. A panel of chiropractors and medical practitioners concluded that '. . . much additional scientific data about the efficacy of cervical spine manipulation are needed.'"
Misattribution problems 
Studies of stroke and manipulation do not always clearly identify what professional has performed the manipulation. In some cases this has led to confusion and improper placement of blame. In a 1995 study, chiropractic researcher Allan Terrett, DC, pointed to this problem:
- "The words chiropractic and chiropractor have been incorrectly used in numerous publications dealing with SMT injury by medical authors, respected medical journals and medical organizations. In many cases, this is not accidental; the authors had access to original reports that identified the practitioner involved as a nonchiropractor. The true incidence of such reporting cannot be determined. Such reporting adversely affects the reader's opinion of chiropractic and chiropractors."
This error was taken into account in a 1999 review of the scientific literature on the risks and benefits of manipulation of the cervical spine (MCS). Special care was taken, whenever possible, to correctly identify all the professions involved, as well as the type of manipulation responsible for any injuries and/or deaths. It analyzed 177 cases that were reported in 116 articles published between 1925 and 1997, and summarized:
- "The most frequently reported injuries involved arterial dissection or spasm, and lesions of the brain stem. Death occurred in 32 (18%) of the cases. Physical therapists were involved in less than 2% of the cases, and no deaths have been attributed to MCS provided by physical therapists. Although the risk of injury associated with MCS appears to be small, this type of therapy has the potential to expose patients to vertebral artery damage that can be avoided with the use of mobilization (nonthrust passive movements)."
In Figure 1 in the review, the types of injuries attributed to manipulation of the cervical spine are shown, and Figure 2 shows the type of practitioner involved in the resulting injury. For the purpose of comparison, the type of practitioner was adjusted according to the findings by Terrett.
The review concluded:
- "The literature does not demonstrate that the benefits of MCS outweigh the risks. Several recommendations for future studies and for the practice of MCS are discussed."
Emergency medicine 
In emergency medicine joint manipulation can also refer to the process of bringing fragments of fractured bone or dislocated joints into normal anatomical alignment (otherwise known as 'reducing' the fracture or dislocation). These procedures have no relation to the HVLA thrust procedure.
See also 
- Koes, BW; van Tulder, M; Lin, CW; Macedo, LG; McAuley, J; Maher, C (2010 Dec). "An updated overview of clinical guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain in primary care.". European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society 19 (12): 2075–94. PMID 20602122.
- Dean C. Swedlo, "The Historical Development of Chiropractic." pp. 55-58, The Proceedings of the 11th Annual History of Medicine Days, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Calgary
- Burke, G.L., "Backache from Occiput to Coccyx" Chapter 1
- Keating JC Jr (2003). "Several pathways in the evolution of chiropractic manipulation". J Manipulative Physiol Ther 26 (5): 300–21. doi:10.1016/S0161-4754(02)54125-7. PMID 12819626.
- Burke, G.L., "Backache from Occiput to Coccyx" Chapter 7
- "International MUA Academy of Physicians - Historical Considerations". Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- A. S. Blundell Bankart. Manipulative surgery. 1932. London: Constable & Co.
- Maitland, G.D. Peripheral Manipulation 2nd ed. Butterworths, London, 1977.
Maitland, G.D. Vertebral Manipulation 5th ed. Butterworths, London, 1986.
- Herzog W, Symons B. (2001). "The biomechanics of spinal manipulation.". Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med 13 (2): 191–216.
- Evans DW, Breen AC. (2006). "A biomechanical model for mechanically efficient cavitation production during spinal manipulation: prethrust position and the neutral zone.". J Manipulative Physiol Ther 29 (1): 72–82. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2005.11.011. PMID 16396734.
- Nilsson N, Christensen H, Hartvigsen J (1996). "Lasting changes in passive range motion after spinal manipulation: a randomized, blind, controlled trial.". J Manipulative Physiol Ther 19 (3): 165–8. PMID 8728459.
- Murphy BA, Dawson NJ, Slack JR (March 1995). "Sacroiliac joint manipulation decreases the H-reflex". Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 35 (2): 87–94. PMID 7781578.
- Tullberg T, Blomberg S, Branth B, Johnsson R (May 1998). "Manipulation does not alter the position of the sacroiliac joint. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis". Spine 23 (10): 1124–8; discussion 1129. doi:10.1097/00007632-199805150-00010. PMID 9615363. "Because the supposed positive effects are not a result of a reduction of subluxation, further studies of the effects of manipulation should focus on the soft tissue response."
- Senstad O, Leboeuf-Yde C, Borchgrevink C (February 1997). "Frequency and characteristics of side effects of spinal manipulative therapy (Adverse)". Spine 22 (4): 435–40; discussion 440–1. doi:10.1097/00007632-199702150-00017. PMID 9055373.
- Assendelft, WJJ; Morton, SC; Yu, EI; Suttorp, MJ; Shekelle, PG (2004). "Spinal manipulative therapy for low-back pain". In Assendelft, Willem JJ. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004 (1): CD000447. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000447.pub2. PMID 14973958. Art. No.: CD000447. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Dagenais S, Gay RE, Tricco AC, Freeman MD, Mayer JM (2010). "NASS Contemporary Concepts in Spine Care: Spinal manipulation therapy for acute low back pain". Spine J 10 (10): 918–940. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2010.07.389. PMID 20869008.
- Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V et al. (October 2, 2007). "Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society". Ann Intern Med 147 (7): 478–91. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-7-200710020-00006. PMID 17909209.
- Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, Kawchuk G, Dagenais S (2008). "Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with spinal manipulation and mobilization". Spine J 8 (1): 213–25. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.023. PMID 18164469.
- Meeker W, Branson R, Bronfort G et al. (2007). "Chiropractic management of low back pain and low back related leg complaints" (PDF). Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
- Ernst E, Canter PH (2006). "A systematic review of systematic reviews of spinal manipulation". J R Soc Med 99 (4): 192–6. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.4.192. PMC 1420782. PMID 16574972. Lay summary – BBC News (2006-03-22).
- Gross A, Miller J, D'Sylva J et al. (2010). "Manipulation or mobilisation for neck pain". In Gross, Anita. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD004249. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004249.pub3. PMID 20091561.
- Hurwitz EL, Carragee EJ, van der Velde G et al. (February 2008). "Treatment of neck pain: noninvasive interventions: results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders". Spine 33 (4 Suppl): S123–52. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181644b1d. PMID 18204386.
- Vernon H, Humphreys K, Hagino C (2007). "Chronic mechanical neck pain in adults treated by manual therapy: a systematic review of change scores in randomized clinical trials". J Manipulative Physiol Ther 30 (3): 215–27. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2007.01.014. PMID 17416276.
- Martín Saborido C, García Lizana F, Alcázar Alcázar R, Sarría-Santamera A (May 2007). "[Effectiveness of spinal manipulation in treating whiplash injuries]". Aten Primaria (in Spanish; Castilian) 39 (5): 241–6. PMID 17493449.
- Williams NH, Hendry M, Lewis R, Russell I, Westmoreland A, Wilkinson C (December 2007). "Psychological response in spinal manipulation (PRISM): a systematic review of psychological outcomes in randomised controlled trials". Complement Ther Med 15 (4): 271–83. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2007.01.008. PMID 18054729.
- Frequency and Characteristics of Side Effects of Spinal Manipulative Therapy. Outcomes of Treatment (Adverse) Spine. 22(4) 435-440, February 15, 1997.
- Cassidy JD, Thiel H, Kirkaldy-Willis W (1993). "Side posture manipulation for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation". J Manip Physiol Ther 16 (2): 96–103. PMID 8445360.
- Klougart N, Leboeuf-Yde C, Rasmussen L (1996). "Safety in chiropractic practice, Part I; The occurrence of cerebrovascular accidents after manipulation to the neck in Denmark from 1978-1988". J Manip Physiol Ther 19 (6): 371–7. PMID 8864967.
- Lauretti W "What are the risk of chiropractic neck treatments?" retrieved online 08 028 2006 from www.chiro.org
- Coulter ID, Hurwitz EL, Adams AH, et al. (1996) The appropriateness of manipulation and mobilization of the cervical spine 'Santa Monica, CA, Rand Corp: xiv [RAND MR-781-CCR]. Current link
- Dvorak J, Orelli F. How dangerous is manipulation to the cervical spine? Manual Medicine 1985; 2: 1-4.
- Jaskoviak P. Complications arising from manipulation of the cervical spine. J Manip Physiol Ther 1980; 3: 213-19.
- Henderson DJ, Cassidy JD. Vertebral Artery syndrome. In: Vernon H. Upper cervical syndrome: chiropractic diagnosis and treatment. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1988: 195-222.
- Eder M, Tilscher H. Chiropractic therapy: diagnosis and treatment (English translation). Rockville, Md: Aspen Publishers, 1990: 61.
- Haldeman S, Chapman-Smith D, Petersen DM. Guidelines for chiropractic quality assurance and practice parameters. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers, 1993: 170-2.
- Kleynhans AM, Terrett AG. Cerebrovascular complications of manipulation. In: Haldeman S, ed. Principles and practice of chiropractic, 2nd ed. East Norwalk, CT, Appleton Lang, 1992.
- Haldeman S, Kohlbeck F, McGregor M. Unpredictability of cerebrovascular ischemia associated with cervical spine manipulation therapy: a review of sixty‐four cases after cervical spine manipulation" Spine 2002, 27(1) 49‐55.
- Rothwell D, Bondy S, Williams J. Chiropractic manipulation and stroke: a population-based case‐controlled study" Stroke 2001, 32:1054‐60.
- Haldeman, S et al. Clinical perceptions of the risk of vertebral artery dissection after cervical manipulation: the effect of referral bias" Spine 2002, 2(5) 334‐342.
- Haldeman S et al. Arterial dissections following cervical manipulation: the chiropractic experience. Journal of the Canadian Medical Association, 2001, 2, 165(7) 905‐906.
- Spinal manipulation: Its safety is uncertain. Edzard Ernst, CMAJ, January 8, 2002; 166 (1)
- Adverse effects of spinal manipulation: a systematic review - Ernst 100 (7) 330 - Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
- NHS Evaluation of the evidence base for the adverse effects of spinal manipulation by chiropractors
- Rothwell D, Bondy S, Williams J (2001). "Chiropractic manipulation and stroke: a population-based case-control study". Stroke 32 (5): 1054–60. doi:10.1161/01.STR.32.5.1054. PMID 11340209. Original article
- Finding A Good Chiropractor. Samuel Homola, DC. Arch Fam Med. 1998;7:20-23.
- Terrett A (1995). "Misuse of the literature by medical authors in discussing spinal manipulative therapy injury". J Manipulative Physiol Ther 18 (4): 203–10. PMID 7636409.
- Di Fabio R (1999). "Manipulation of the cervical spine: risks and benefits". Phys Ther 79 (1): 50–65. PMID 9920191. Retrieved 2011-11-24.
- Figure 1. Injuries attributed to manipulation of the cervical spine.
- Figure 2. Practitioners providing manipulation of the cervical spine that resulted in injury.
Further reading 
- Cyriax, J. Textbook of Orthopaedic Medicine, Vol. I: Diagnosis of Soft Tissue Lesions 8th ed. Bailliere Tindall, London, 1982.
- Cyriax, J. Textbook of Orthopaedic Medicine, Vol. II: Treatment by Manipulation, Massage and Injection 10th ed. Bailliere Tindall, London, 1983.
- Greive Modern Manual Therapy of the Vertebral Column. Harcourt Publishers Ltd., 1994
- Maitland, G.D. Peripheral Manipulation 2nd ed. Butterworths, London, 1977.
- Maitland, G.D. Vertebral Manipulation 5th ed. Butterworths, London, 1986.
- McKenzie, R.A. The Lumbar Spine; Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy. Spinal Publications, Waikanae, New Zealand, 1981.
- McKenzie, R.A. The Cervical and Thoracic Spine; Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy. Spinal Publications, Waikanae, New Zealand, 1990.
- Mennel, J.M. Joint Pain; Diagnosis and Treatment Using Manipulative Techniques. Little Brown and Co., Boston, 1964.
- American Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapy (AAOMPT)
- Canadian Academy of Manipulative Therapy (CAMT)
- Canadian Orthopractic Manual Therapy Association (COMTA)
- International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMT)
- Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy (JMMT)
- Prevention of the vertebrobasilar accidents following cervical thrust manipulations: recommendations of the French Society of Orthopaedic and Osteopathic Manual Medicine (SOFMMOO).
- European Association of Advanced Manual and Manipulative Therapy