SDI (engine)

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The SDI engine is a design of naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection diesel engine developed and produced by Volkswagen Group for use in cars and vans, along with marine engine (Volkswagen Marine)[1][2] and Volkswagen Industrial Motor[3] applications.

The SDI brand name (derived from "Suction Diesel Injection" or "Suction Diesel Direct Injection", the latter a translation of the German: Saugdiesel Direkt Einspritzung)[4][5][6] was adopted in order to differentiate between earlier and less efficient indirect injection engines, called SD[4] or "Suction Diesel", which were also produced by Volkswagen Group.

SDI engines are only produced in inline or straight engine configurations; and as they originate from a German manufacture, are designated as either R4 or R5, taken from the German: Reihenmotor. They are available in various displacements (from 1.7 to 2.5 litres), in inline-four (R4 or I4) and inline-five (R5 or I5), in various states of tune, depending on intended application.

The SDI engine is generally utilised in applications where reliability and fuel economy are of primary concern. These engines lack any type of forced induction, hence the use of 'suction' in the title, and as such, their power output is lower when compared with a similar displacement turbocharged engine. For example, the 2.0 SDI engine fitted to the Volkswagen Golf Mk5 has a peak power output of 55 kilowatts (75 PS; 74 bhp); whereas the same engine in Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) form is rated at 103 kilowatts (140 PS; 138 bhp) or 125 kilowatts (170 PS; 168 bhp), depending on specification.

SDI engines and applications[edit]

SDI engines: specifications, performance and applications[7][8]
model designation
or ID code(s)
engine
displacement
peak power
at rpm (Directive 80/1269/EEC)
max. torque
at rpm
notable
design features
notes & application(s)
automotive engines
1.7 SDI AHB, AHG, AKU, AKW 1,716 cubic centimetres (104.7 cu in) 44 kW (60 PS; 59 bhp) @ 4,200 115 N·m (85 lbf·ft)
@ 2,200
Bosch VP37 (German: VerteilerPumpe) electronic distributor injection pump Volkswagen Lupo, SEAT Arosa, Volkswagen Polo (some markets), Volkswagen Caddy Typ 9K
1.9 SDI ASY, AEY 1,896 cubic centimetres (115.7 cu in) 47 kW (64 PS; 63 bhp) @ 4,200 125 N·m (92 lbf·ft)
@ 1,600-2,800
Bosch VP37 (VerteilerPumpe) electronic distributor injection pump Volkswagen Polo Mk3, Volkswagen Polo Classic, Volkswagen Golf Mk3, Volkswagen Caddy Typ 9U/9K, SEAT Inca, Škoda Octavia (Mk1), Škoda Fabia, Volkswagen Bora (some markets)
1.9 SDI AGP, AQM 1,896 cubic centimetres (115.7 cu in) 50 kW (68 PS; 67 bhp) @ 4,000 133 N·m (98 lbf·ft)
@ 1,800
Bosch VP37 (VerteilerPumpe) electronic distributor injection pump Volkswagen Polo Mk3, Volkswagen Golf Mk4, Volkswagen Caddy Typ 9U/9K, SEAT Ibiza, SEAT Inca, SEAT León Mk1 (1M), Škoda Octavia (Mk1) Volkswagen Bora (some markets)
2.0 SDI PD BDJ, BST 1,968 cubic centimetres (120.1 cu in) 51 kW (69 PS; 68 bhp) @ 4,200 140 N·m (103 lbf·ft)
@ 2,200-2,400
Bosch Pumpe Düse
technology
Volkswagen Caddy Typ 2K
2.0 SDI PD BDK 1,968 cubic centimetres (120.1 cu in) 55 kW (75 PS; 74 bhp) @ 4,200 140 N·m (103 lbf·ft)
@ 2,200-2,400
Bosch Pumpe Düse
technology
Volkswagen Golf Mk5
2.5 R5 SDI AGX 2,461 cubic centimetres (150.2 cu in) 55 kW (75 PS; 74 bhp) 160 N·m (118 lbf·ft) Inline-five engine, Bosch VP37 (VerteilerPumpe) electronic distributor injection pump Volkswagen LT28 and LT35 vans (05/96-04/01)
marine engines
1.9 SDI
[1]
SDI 40-4,[9]
SDI 50-4,[10]
SDI 60-4[11]
1,896 cubic centimetres (115.7 cu in) 29 kW (39 PS; 39 bhp) @ 2,600 /
37 kW (50 PS; 50 bhp) @ 3,000 /
44 kW (60 PS; 59 bhp) @ 3,600
126 N·m (93 lbf·ft) @ 2,000 /
130 N·m (96 lbf·ft) @ 2,000 /
129 N·m (95 lbf·ft) @ 2,000
Bosch VP37 (VerteilerPumpe) electronic distributor injection pump Small motor cruisers. Optional connection for heater core or hot water preparation for use in sailboats
2.5 R5 SDI
[1][2]
SDI 55-5,[12]
SDI 75-5[13]
2,461 cubic centimetres (150.2 cu in) 40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) @ 2,500 /
55 kW (75 PS; 74 bhp) @ 3,600
155 N·m (114 lbf·ft)
@ 2,250
Inline-five engine, Bosch VP37 (VerteilerPumpe) electronic distributor injection pump Yachts and motor cruisers
industrial engines (80/1269/EEC-rated)
1.9 SDI
430/BXT 1,896 cubic centimetres (115.7 cu in) 30 kW (41 PS; 40 bhp) Bosch VP37 (VerteilerPumpe) electronic distributor injection pump Volkswagen Industrial Motor
1.9 SDI
[3]
444 1,896 cubic centimetres (115.7 cu in) 44 kW (60 PS; 59 bhp) @ 3,600 130 N·m (96 lbf·ft)
@ 2,200
Bosch VP37 (VerteilerPumpe) electronic distributor injection pump Volkswagen Industrial Motor
Notes: Volkswagen Marine engines were originally rated according to Directive 80/1269/EEC. However, some are now being rated to ISO 8178-4.[citation needed]

Lubricants[edit]

Like their related Volkswagen Group Turbocharged Direct Injection diesel engines, Volkswagen AG requires that motor oil lubricants for SDI engines must only meet VW505.00, 505.01, 506.00, 506.01, or 507.00 officially approved standards.[14] 'Generic' oil standards such as the American Petroleum Institute 'API',[15] or European Automobile Manufacturers Association 'ACEA'[16] are not recognised, nor approved by VW - so oils bearing these generic approvals must not be used, except when the oil has also been granted one of the specific VW approvals.

Many formulations of motor oils from most brands are now "VW Approved" to the above standards. However, there does exist a few unapproved 'off brands' that print the VW number on the label, effectively 'claiming' to meet the said standard, but hide in small type the word "recommended".[citation needed] Volkswagen AG only carries out in-house testing on motor oils to grant the necessary approvals; if Volkswagen AG, therefore, has not carried out such tests (or if a submitted oil has failed their tests), Volkswagen AG will not grant approval.[citation needed] Volkswagen Germany (and Volkswagen of America) freely publish up-to-date lists of currently approved oils on their respective websites, along with the technical resource, erWin.[17] Volkswagen AG does not permit any independent testing facility to grant their own VW standards.

All SDI-engined models with "LongLife Servicing", "Extended Service Intervals", "ESI", or "WIV", must be run on official 'LongLife' lubricants, namely VW506.00 (for non-PD), VW506.01 (for PD), or the very latest VW507.00.[14] Again, other 'generic' longlife lubricants (or those longlife standards granted by other manufacturers such as General Motors,[18] BMW[19] or Mercedes-Benz[20]) should not be used, unless they also have the official relevant VW LongLife approval.

SDI vs other VW Group diesel engines[edit]

The following table contains a selection of current and historical Volkswagen Group compression-ignition SDI diesel engines for comparison of performance and operating characteristics with other naturally aspirated and forced induction engines of the same capacity:

engine
model
engine
displacement
engine configuration
& diesel fuel system
valvetrain max.
power:
kW
(PS)
rpm
for
max.
power
max.
torque:
Nm
(ft·lbf)
rpm
for
max.
torque
specific
power
[disambiguation needed]:
kW/L
(PS/L)
max
MEP:
bar
MEP @
max.
power:
bar
max
operating
revs:
rpm
dates
installed
1.4 SD 1,391 cc (84.9 cu in) inline 4, indirect injection
mechanical distributor injection pump
8v
SOHC
35
(48)
4,500 82
(60)
2,700 - 3,500 25.2
(34.5)
5,000 Polo 2, 2F
late 1980s -
early 1990s
1.4 TDI 1,422 cc (86.8 cu in) inline 3, turbo direct injection
mechanically pressurised, electrically triggered pumpe-duse unit injectors
12v
SOHC
59
(80)
4,000 195
(144)
2,200 41.5
(56.3)
Polo Bluemotion, first generation
2006 -
2010
1.7 D 1,716 cc (104.7 cu in) inline 4, indirect injection
mechanical distributor injection pump
8v
SOHC
42
(57)
4,500 103
(76)
2,800 24.5
(33.2)
10/1986-
05/1992
1.7 SDI 1,716 cc (104.7 cu in) inline 4, direct injection
electronic distributor injection pump
8v
SOHC
44
(60)
4,200 115
(85)
2,200 25.6
(35.0)
07/1996-
07/2005
1.9 D 1,896 cc (115.7 cu in) inline 4, indirect injection
mechanical distributor injection pump
8v
SOHC
47
(64)
4,300 124
(91)
2,500-
3,200
24.8
(33.8)
1.9 SD 1,896 cc (115.7 cu in) inline 4, indirect injection
electronic distributor injection pump
8v
SOHC
36
(49)
3,000 121
(89)
1,800 19.0
(25.8)
current
(Industrial)
1.9 SDI 1,896 cc (115.7 cu in) inline 4, direct injection
electronic distributor injection pump
8v
SOHC
50
(68)
4,000 133
(98)
1,800 26.4
(35.9)
current
1.9 TD 1,896 cc (115.7 cu in) inline 4, indirect injection
mechanical distributor injection pump
8v
SOHC
55
(75)
4,200 150
(111)
2,000 29.0
(39.6)
1.9 TDI 1,896 cc (115.7 cu in) inline 4, direct injection
electronic distributor injection pump
8v
SOHC
66
(90)
3,750 210
(155)
1,900 34.8
(47.5)
1.9 TDI PD 1,896 cc (115.7 cu in) inline 4, direct injection
Pumpe Düse (PD) Unit Injector
8v
SOHC
96
(131)
4,000 310
(229)
1,900 50.6
(69.1)
current
2.0 SDI PD 1,968 cc (120.1 cu in) inline 4, direct injection
Pumpe Düse (PD) Unit Injector
8v
SOHC
55
(75)
4,200 140
(103)
2,400 27.9
(38.1)
current
2.0 TDI PD
140 PS
1,968 cc (120.1 cu in) inline 4, direct injection
Pumpe Düse (PD) Unit Injector
8v
SOHC
103
(140)
4,000 320
(236)
1,800 52.3
(71.1)
20.43 15.70 current
2.0 TDI PD 16v
170 PS
1,968 cc (120.1 cu in) inline 4, direct injection
Pumpe Düse (PD) Unit Injector
16v
DOHC
125
(170)
4,200 350
(258)
1,800-
2,500
63.5
(86.4)
current
2.0 TDI CR 16v
170 PS
1,968 cc (120.1 cu in) inline 4, direct injection
common rail (CR)
16v
DOHC
125
(170)
4,200 350
(258)
1,750-
2,500
63.5
(86.4)
current
2.5 R5 SDI
75 PS
2,461 cc (150.2 cu in) inline 5, direct injection
electronic distributor injection pump
10v
SOHC
55
(75)
3,600 155
(114)
2,250 22.3
(30.5)
02/2002-
current
2.5 R5 TDI CR
163 PS
2,461 cc (150.2 cu in) inline 5, direct injection
common rail (CR)
10v
SOHC
120
(163)
3,500 350
(258)
2,000 48.8
(66.3)
current
2.5 R5 TDI PD
174 PS
2,461 cc (150.2 cu in) inline 5, direct injection
Pumpe Düse (PD) Unit Injector
10v
SOHC
128
(174)
3,500 400
(295)
2,000 52.0
(70.7)
20.43 17.84 current
engine
model
engine
displacement
engine configuration
& diesel fuel system
valvetrain max.
power:
kW
(PS)
rpm
for
max.
power
max.
torque:
Nm
(ft·lbf)
rpm
for
max.
torque
specific
power:
kW/L
(PS/L)
max
MEP:
bar
MEP @
max.
power:
bar
max
operating
revs:
rpm
dates
installed

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Volkswagen Marine > Engines <". Volkswagen.de. Volkswagen Group. 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "Boat engines from Volkswagen Marine - Self-study programme M001 - Design and function" (PDF). Volkswagen Marine. Volkswagen Group. April 2001. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "The SDI 1.9 Industrial Engine" (PDF), mi-uk.com (Volkswagen AG), March 2005, retrieved 4 November 2009 
  4. ^ a b "Volkswagen Caddy owners manual, RHD models", Volkswagen AG, 2000 
  5. ^ Max Bohner, Richard Fischer, Rolf Gscheidle (2001). Fachkunde Kraftfahrzeugtechnik (in German) (27 ed.). Europa-Lehrmittel, Haan-Gruiten. ISBN 3-8085-2067-1. 
  6. ^ "Abbreviations". SGPetch.co.uk. SG Petch Ltd (SEAT franchised dealer). Retrieved 17 December 2009. 
  7. ^ "Products - VOLKSWAGEN". Alex-Original.com. Alex Original ltd. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  8. ^ "TB 20 addendum - Technical Bulletin for Volkswagen Group timing belt renewal intervals". Gates.com. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  9. ^ "SDI 40-4 - engine performance" (PDF). www.vw-m.de. Volkswagen Marine. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  10. ^ "SDI 50-4 - engine performance" (PDF). www.vw-m.de. Volkswagen Marine. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  11. ^ "SDI 60-4 - engine performance" (PDF). www.vw-m.de. Volkswagen Marine. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  12. ^ "SDI 55-5 - engine performance" (PDF). www.vw-m.de. Volkswagen Marine. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  13. ^ "SDI 75-5 - engine performance" (PDF). www.vw-m.de. Volkswagen Marine. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  14. ^ a b "Volkswagen oil specifications". OilSpecifications.org. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  15. ^ "American Petroleum Institute". OilSpecifications.org. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  16. ^ "ACEA engine oil sequences". OilSpecifications.org. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  17. ^ "Approved oils - from erWin online". erWin.Volkswagen.de. Volkswagen AG. Retrieved 19 February 2010.  (registration required)
  18. ^ "General Motors oil specifications". OilSpecifications.org. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  19. ^ "BMW oil specifications". OilSpecifications.org. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  20. ^ "Mercedes oil specifications". OilSpecifications.org. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 

External links[edit]