|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||178.85 g mol−1|
|Density||1.291 g cm-3|
|Melting point||−54 °C (−65 °F; 219 K)|
|Boiling point||74 to 76 °C (165 to 169 °F; 347 to 349 K)|
|EU classification||T+ N|
|S-phrases||S26, S27, S28, S45, S60, S61|
|Flash point||−12 °C (10 °F; 261 K)|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Tetramethyltin is an organometallic compound with the formula (CH3)4Sn. This liquid, one of the simplest organotin compounds, is useful for transition-metal mediated conversion of acid chlorides to methyl ketones and aryl halides to aryl methyl ketones. It is volatile and toxic, so care should be taken when using it in the laboratory.
Synthesis and structure
- 4 CH3MgI + SnCl4 → (CH3)4Sn + 4 MgICl
In tetramethyltin, the metal surrounded by four methyl groups in a tetrahedral structure is a heavy analogue of neopentane.
Precursor to methyltin compounds
Tetramethyltin is a precursor to trimethyltin chloride (and related methyltin halides), which are precursors to other organotin compounds. These methyltin chlorides are prepared via the so-called Kocheshkov redistribution reaction. Thus, SnMe4 and SnCl4 are allowed to react at temperatures between 100 °C and 200 °C to give Me3SnCl as a product:
- SnCl4 + 3 SnMe4 → 4 Me3SnCl
A second route to trimethyltin chloride utilizing tetramethyltin involves the reaction of mercury (II) chloride to react with SnMe4.
- 4 HgCl2 + 4 SnMe4 → 4 Me3SnCl + 4 MeHgCl
A variety of methyltin compounds are used as precursors for stabilizers in PVC. Di- and trimercapto tin compounds are used to inhibit the dehydrochlorination, which is the pathway for photolytic and thermal degradation of PVC.
Tetramethyltin decomposes in the gas phase at about 277 °C (550 K) Me4Sn vapor reacts with silica to give Me3Sn-grafted solid.
- Me4Sn + ≡SiOH → ≡SiOSnMe3 + MeH
This reaction is also possible with other alkyl substituents. In a similar process, tetramethyltin has been used to functionalize certain zeolites at temperatures as low as -90 °C.
Applications in organic synthesis
- SnMe4 + RCOCl → RCOMe + Me3SnCl
- "Tetramethyltin | C4H12Sn". ChemSpider. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- Scott, W. J.; Jones, J. H.; Moretto, A. F. (2002). "Tetramethylstannane". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rt070.
- Thoonen, S. H. L.; Deelman, B.; van Koten, G; (2004). "Synthetic Aspects of Tetraorganotins and Organotin(IV) Halides". Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 689 (13): 2145–2157. doi:10.1016/j.jorganchem.2004.03.027.
- Davies, A. G. (2008). "Tin Organometallics". In Robert H. Crabtree and D. Michael P. Mingos. Comprehensive Organometallic Chemistry III. Elsevier. pp. 809–883. doi:10.1016/B0-08-045047-4/00054-6.
- Labadie, J. and Stille, J. (1983). "Mechanisms of the palladium-catalyzed couplings of acid chlorides with organotin reagents". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105 (19): 6129. doi:10.1021/ja00357a026.