The Magician (Tarot card)
The Magician, The Magus, or The Juggler (I) is the first trump or Major Arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks. It is used in game playing as well as in divination. In divination it is considered by some to succeed The Fool card, often numbered 0.
In French Le Bateleur, "the mountebank" or the "sleight of hand artist", is a practitioner of stage magic. The Italian tradition calls him Il Bagatto or Il Bagatello. The Mantegna Tarocchi image that would seem to correspond with the Magician is labeled Artixano, the Artisan; he is the second lowest in the series, outranking only the Beggar. Visually the 18th-century woodcuts reflect earlier iconic representations, and can be compared to the free artistic renditions in the 15th-century hand-painted tarots made for the Visconti and Sforza families. In the painted cards attributed to Bonifacio Bembo, the Magician appears to be playing with cups and balls.
In esoteric decks, occultists, starting with Oswald Wirth, turned Le Bateleur from a mountebank into a magus. The curves of the magician's hat brim in the Marseilles image are similar to the esoteric deck's mathematical sign of infinity. Similarly, other symbols were added. The essentials are that the magician has set up a temporary table outdoors, to display items that represent the suits of the Minor Arcana: Cups, Coins, Swords (as knives). The fourth, the baton (Clubs) he holds in his hand. The baton later stands for a literal magician's "wand".
The illustration of the Tarot card "The Magician" from the Rider-Waite tarot deck was developed by A. E. Waite for the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in 1910. Waite's magician features the infinity symbol over his head, and an ouroboros belt, both symbolizing eternity. The figure stands among a garden of flowers, to imply the manifestation and cultivation of desires. Waite was a key figure in the development of modern Tarot interpretation, though not all interpretations follow his theology.
In the tarot game
In most tarot games, the Bagatto is the lowest ranking trump card but worth a lot of points. Therefore many players want to take a trick where the Magician is played. Any player that takes a trick using him will get bonus points especially if it is the last trick.
In tarocchini, the Bégato still serves as the lowest trump but it has an added ability. It and the Fool can function as limited wild cards known as counters (contatori). They can be used separately or together to fill missing gaps in combinations but they can't fill in two consecutive gaps in sequential combinations. They can't replace the highest trump or kings. Both cards can be used in every sequence but as the Fool can't be captured while the Magician is vulnerable, the player holding the Magician would want to use it only judiciously.
In Sicilian tarocchi, the Magician is the second lowest trump, outranking an unnumbered trump called Miseria which is worth no points.
Some frequent keywords include:
- Action — Consciousness — Concentration — Personal power
- Practicality — Energy — Creativity — Movement
- Precision — Conviction — Manipulation — Self confidence
- Being objective — Focusing — Determination — Initiative
In the Magician's right hand is a wand raised toward heaven, the sky or the element æther, while his left hand is pointing to the earth. This iconographic gesture has multiple meanings, but is endemic to the Mysteries, symbolizing divine immanence, the ability of the magician to bridge the gap between heaven and earth. On the table in front of the Magician the symbols of the four Tarot suits signify the Classical elements of earth, air, fire and water. Beneath are roses and lilies, the flos campi and lilium convallium, changed into garden flowers, to show the culture of aspiration.
When the Magician appears in a spread, it points to the talents, capabilities and resources at the querent's disposal. Depending on the card's placement in relation to other cards, the message is to tap into one's full potential rather than holding back, especially when there is a need to transform something. There are choices and directions to take. Guidance can arrive through one's own intuition or in the form of someone who brings about change or transformation.
The card can mean that a manipulator is floating around, usually if it's reversed. He may be a beneficent guide, but he does not necessarily have our best interests in mind. He may also represent the querent’s ego or self-awareness. He can also represent the intoxication of power, both good and bad.
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According to Arthur Edward Waite, this card signifies the divine motive in man. It is also the unity of the individual being on all planes, and in a very high sense it is thought. With further reference to the "sign of life", i.e. the infinity symbol and its connection with the number 8, it may be remembered that Christian Gnosticism speaks of rebirth in Christ as a change "unto the Ogdoad." The mystic number is termed Jerusalem above, the Land flowing with Milk and Honey, the Holy Spirit and the Land of the Lord. According to Martinism, 8 is the number of Christ.
In other traditions this card can refer to scholarly knowledge. The Fool (card 0) has learned something about the workings of the world and now sees himself as powerful. Perhaps the reputation of the Magician is derived from the Fool misunderstanding what is happening while the High Priestess (the next card) is looking back, thinking that the Magician is missing the point of spiritual knowledge.
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Some schools associate him with Hermes, especially Hermes Trismegistus, a syncretic Egyptian/Greek figure who is a combination of Hermes and of Thoth, a god of the moon, knowledge, and writing. In this aspect, The Magician guides The Fool through the first step out of the cave of childhood into the sunlight of consciousness, just as Hermes guides Persephone out of the Underworld every year.
He represents the potential of a new adventure, chosen or thrust upon one. A journey undertaken in daylight, in the Enlightenment tradition. He brings things out of the darkness into the light. He explores the world in order to master it. He is solar consciousness.
He is associated through the cross sums (the sum of the digits) with Key 10, The Wheel of Fortune, picking up on Hermes as a Trickster figure and a god of chance, and Key 19, The Sun, bringing us back to Apollo and to enlightenment.
He embodies the lesson of “as above, so below," the lesson that mastery in one realm may bring mastery in another. He also warns of the danger of applying lessons from one realm to another.
The Magician transcends duality. He has learned the fundamental elements of the universe, represented by emblems of the four suits of the tarot already broken apart and lying on the table before him. Similarly, in the Book of Thoth deck, he is crowned by snakes, another symbol of both infinity and dualism, as snakes have learned from Gilgamesh how to shed their skins and be reborn, thus achieving a type of immortality; the blind prophet Tiresias split apart coupling snakes and as a result became a woman, transcending the dualism of gender.
In pop culture
- The Magician is a final boss in The House of the Dead series, depicted as a tall humanoid entity with the ability to control fire. The character has appeared in multiple installments due to his popularity.
- In JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, one of the main characters of the third arc series, Muhammed Avdol, has a Stand called Magician's Red, who can control fire. It was named after this tarot card.
- This card represents the character Meltina Melvis in the anime series Gen'ei o Kakeru Taiyō.
- The Magician Arcana is used to represent Junpei Iori and Kenji Tomochika in Persona 3, as well as Yosuke Hanamura in Persona 4.
- The Surrealist (Le surréaliste), 1947, is a painting by Victor Brauner. The Juggler provided Brauner with a key prototype for his self-portrait: the Surrealist’s large hat, medieval costume, and the position of his arms all derive from this figure who, like Brauner’s subject, stands behind a table displaying a knife, a goblet, and coins.
- Bill Butler, Dictionary of the Tarot. (Schocken, 1975; ISBN 0-8052-0559-4)
- Butler, supra.
- Gray, E. (1960). The Tarot Revealed: A Modern Guide to Reading the Tarot Cards. New York, N.Y.: Bell Publishing Company.
- Tarocchino Bolognese
- Tarocchini sequences
- Sicilian tarocchi
- This is a reference to the Song of Songs, Chapter 2, verse 1 - ego flos campi et lilium convallium (I am a rose of Sharon, a lily of the valleys) s:Bible (World English)/Song of Solomon#Chapter 2
- Refer the Language of flowers.
- Annie Lionnet, Secrets of Tarot, Dorling Kindersley (DK series) p 41
- Arthur Edward Waite's: The Pictorial Key to the Tarot #I. The Magician
- Childs, Elizabeth C. "The Surrealist (Le surréaliste). January 1947 - Guggenheim Museum". Guggenheim.org. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- A. E. Waite's 1910 Pictorial Key to the Tarot
- Most works of Joseph Campbell.
- Lewis Hyde, Trickster Makes this World: Mischief, Myth, and Art (1998).
- Juliette Wood, Folklore 109 (1998):15-24, The Celtic Tarot and the Secret Tradition: A Study in Modern Legend Making (1998)
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