Timeline of the Napoleonic era

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Timeline of the Napoleonic era (1799–1815). The Napoleonic era began in 1799 with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état, that overthrew the Directory and established the French Consulate. It ended in 1815 during the Hundred Days with his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo or a few days later when he abdicated for the second time.

Napoleon Bonaparte[edit]

Main article: Napoleon I of France

Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt], Italian: Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe.

Early years[edit]

1769
  • August 15: Napoleon Bonaparte born in Ajaccio, Corsica
1785
  • October 28: Graduates from Ecole Militaire with the rank of second lieutenant in the artillery.
  • November 3: Stationed in Valence
1793
  • December 22: For his brilliant tactical command (although a subordinate officer, he was widely credited for the victory) at an internal French battle at Toulon, Napoleon receives the new rank of brigadier general
1794
  • August 9–20: Napoleon is imprisoned under suspicion of being a Jacobin and a supporter of Robespierre.
1795
  • October: Royalist 13 Vendémiaire rising put down by Napoleon. Barras helps Napoleon win promotion to Commander of the Interior.
  • October 15: At the home of Paul François Barras, a Directory member, Napoleon meets Rose de Beauharnais (Josephine)
  • 2 November: Directory established
1796
  • March 2: Napoleon is given command of the French army in Italy
  • March 11: Italian campaign against Austria begins
  • May 10: Napoleon wins the Battle of Lodi
  • November 17: Napoleon wins the Battle of Arcole
1797
  • January 14: Napoleon wins the Battle of Rivoli
  • October 17: Treaty of Campo-Formio with Austria.
  • December 5: Napoleon returns to Paris as a hero
1798
  • May 19: Napoleon begins his Egyptian campaign with an army of 38,000
  • July 21: Wins Battle of the Pyramids against Mamelukes in Egypt
  • July 24: Fall of Cairo
  • August 2: Under the command of Admiral Nelson, the British fleet destroys the French navy in the Battle of the Nile. Napoleon's army is cut off from supplies and communication.

Napoleonic era[edit]

1799
  • August 23: Receiving news of turmoil in France, Napoleon relinquishes command in Egypt and returns to Paris, a so-called Coup d’état
  • November 9–10: Coup of Brumaire Napoleon overthrows the Directory.
  • December 12: Napoleon elected First Consul of the Consulate.
1800
1801
1802
  • March 25: Treaty of Amiens.
  • May 1: Napoleon restructures French educational system
  • May 19: Legion of Honour established
  • August 2: New constitution adopted, plebiscite confirms Napoleon as First Consul for life
1804
  • March 21: Introduction of the Civil Code (also known as Code Napoleon)
  • May: Napoleon proclaimed Emperor by the Senate.
  • December 2: Napoleon crowns himself Emperor, in the company of the Pope.
1805
Lord Admiral Nelson Killed.
1806
  • March 30: Napoleon names his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king of Naples, and appoints other family members to various other posts
  • July 12: Confederation of the Rhine, Napoleon as ‘protector’. Initially had 16 member states, later others added, including kingdoms of Saxony and Westphalia
  • Holy Roman Empire abolished
  • September 15: Prussia joins Britain and Russia against Napoleon
  • October 14: Battle of Jena
  • October 14: Battle of Auerstadt.
  • November 21: The Berlin Decree (1806), which initiated the Continental System was issued.
1807
1808
  • March 17: Imperial University established
  • May 2: Spanish people rise up against France. Often referred to as Dos de Mayo Uprising.
  • July 7: Joseph crowned King of Spain, after Portugal revolts against the Continental System/Blockade Napoleon had put in place. Napoleon collected 5 armies to advance into Portugal and 'bullied' the Spanish royal family into resigning.
  • Peninsular War
1809
1811
  • March 20: Napoleon's son born, referred to as the "King of Rome"
1812
  • July 22: Battle of Salamanca
  • August 4–6: Battle of Smolensk.
  • September 1: Moscow evacuated.
  • September 7, 1812: Battle of Borodino.
  • September 14: Napoleon arrives in Moscow to find the city abandoned and set alight by the inhabitants; retreating in the midst of a frigid winter, the army suffers great losses.
  • October 19: Beginning of the Great Retreat.
  • October 24: Battle of Maloyaroslavets.
  • November: Crossing of the River Berezina.
  • December: Grande Armée expelled from Russia.
1813
1814
  • February 10–14: Six Days Campaign.
  • March 30–31: Battle of Paris.
  • April 4: Napoleon abdicates his rule and Louis XVIII, a Bourbon, is restored to the French throne
  • April 11: Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814) Napoleon agrees to exile in Elba, the allies agree to pay his family a pension.
  • May 4: Napoleon is exiled to Elba; his wife and son take refuge in Vienna
1815
Main: Hundred Days: Timeline
  • February 20: Napoleon escapes from Elba.
  • March 20: Napoleon arrives in Paris.
Beginning of the Hundred Days
1821
  • May 5: Napoleon dies

References[edit]

  • Jack Allen Meyer (1987). An Annotated Bibliography of the Napoleonic Era: Recent Publications, 1945-1985 ISBN 0-313-24901-6

Further reading[edit]

  • William Leonard Langer & Peter N. Stearns. The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically, Edition: 6, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001 ISBN 0-395-65237-5, ISBN 978-0-395-65237-4 Chapter "The Napoleonic Period, 1799-1815", pp. 435–441