Joseph Bonaparte

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Joseph I
King Joseph I of Spain.jpg
Joseph I by José Flaugier.
King of Spain and the Indies
Reign 6 June 1808 – 11 December 1813
Predecessor Ferdinand VII
Successor Ferdinand VII
King of Naples
Reign 30 March 1806 – 6 June 1808
Predecessor Ferdinand IV
Successor Joachim I
Spouse Julie Clary
Issue Zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte (1801–1854)
Charlotte Napoléone Bonaparte (1802–1839)
Full name
French: Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte
Italian: Giuseppe-Napoleone Buonaparte
Spanish: José-Napoleón Bonaparte
House House of Bonaparte
Father Carlo Buonaparte
Mother Letizia Ramolino
Born 7 January 1768
Corte, Corsica
Died 28 July 1844(1844-07-28) (aged 76)
Florence, Tuscany
Religion Roman Catholicism
French Monarchy -
Bonaparte Dynasty
Grandes Armes Impériales (1804-1815)2.svg

Napoleon I
Children
   Napoleon II
Siblings
   Joseph, King of Spain
   Lucien, Prince of Canino
   Elisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
   Louis, King of Holland
   Pauline, Princess of Guastalla
   Caroline, Queen of Naples
   Jérôme, King of Westphalia
Nephews and nieces
   Princess Zénaïde
   Princess Charlotte
   Prince Charles Lucien
   Prince Louis Lucien
   Prince Pierre Napoléon
   Prince Napoléon Charles
   Prince Napoléon Louis
   Napoleon III
   Prince Jérôme Napoléon
   Prince Jérôme Napoléon Charles
   Prince Napoléon
   Princess Mathilde
Grandnephews and -nieces
   Prince Joseph
   Prince Lucien Cardinal Bonaparte
   Prince Roland
   Princess Jeanne
   Prince Jerome
   Prince Charles
   Napoléon (V) Victor
   Maria Letizia, Duchess of Aosta
Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Princess Marie
   Princess Marie Clotilde
   Napoléon (VI) Louis
Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Napoléon (VII) Charles
   Princess Catherine
   Princess Laure
   Prince Jérôme
Great Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Princess Caroline
   Jean Christophe, Prince Napoléon
Napoleon II
Napoleon III
Children
   Napoléon (IV), Prince Imperial

Joseph-Napoleon Bonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I). After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.

Early years and personal life[edit]

Joseph was born Giuseppe Buonaparte in 1768 to Carlo Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino at Corte, the capital of the Corsican Republic. In the year of his birth, Corsica was invaded by France and conquered the following year. His father was originally a follower of the Corsican Patriot leader, Pasquale Paoli, but later became a supporter of French rule.

As a lawyer, politician, and diplomat, Joseph served in the Cinq-Cents and was the French ambassador to Rome. On 30 September 1800, as Minister Plenipotentiary, he signed a treaty of friendship and commerce between France and the United States at Morfontaine, alongside Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu, and Pierre Louis Roederer.

He married Marie Julie Clary on 1 August 1794 in Cuges-les-Pins, France. They had three daughters:

He claimed the two surviving daughters as his heirs. He also sired two children with Maria Giulia, the Countess of Atri:

  • Giulio (1806– )
  • Teresa (1808– ).

Joseph had two American daughters born at Point Breeze, his estate in Bordentown, New Jersey, by his mistress, Annette Savage ("Madame de la Folie"):

  • Pauline Anne; died young.
  • Catherine Charlotte (1822–1890); married Col. Zebulon Howell Benton of Jefferson County, New York, and had issue:[1] Louis Joseph Benton (1848-1940) and son Frederick Joseph Benton (1901-1967)[2]

In 1795 Joseph was a member of the Council of Ancients, where he used his position to help his brother overthrow the Directory four years later.

The Château de Villandry had been seized by the French Revolutionary government; and, in the early 19th century, Joseph's brother, Emperor Napoleon, acquired the château for him. In 1806, Joseph was given military command of Naples, and shortly afterward was made king by Napoleon, to be replaced two years later by his sister's husband, Joachim Murat. Joseph was then made King of Spain in August 1808, soon after the French invasion.

Spain[edit]

Portrait by François Gérard, 1808
Propaganda caricature depicting Joseph Bonaparte in Spain

Joseph somewhat reluctantly left Naples, where he was popular, and arrived in Spain where he was very unpopular indeed. Joseph came under heavy fire from his opponents in Spain, who tried to smear his reputation by calling him Pepe Botella for his alleged heavy drinking, an accusation echoed by later Spanish historiography, despite the fact that Joseph was abstemious. His arrival sparked the Spanish revolt against French rule, and the beginning of the Peninsular War. Thompson says the Spanish revolt was, "a reaction against new institutions and ideas, a movement for loyalty to the old order: to the hereditary crown of the Most Catholic kings, which Napoleon, an excommunicated enemy of the Pope, had put on the head of a Frenchman; to the Catholic Church persecuted by republicans who had desecrated churches, murdered priests, and enforced a "loi des cultes"; and to local and provincial rights and privileges threatened by an efficiently centralized government.[3]

Joseph temporarily retreated with much of the French Army to northern Spain. Feeling himself in an ignominious position, Joseph then proposed his own abdication from the Spanish throne, hoping that Napoleon would sanction his return to the Neapolitan Throne he had formerly occupied. Napoleon dismissed Joseph's misgivings out of hand; and, to back up the raw and ill-trained levies he had initially allocated to Spain—the Emperor sent heavy French reinforcements to assist Joseph in maintaining his position as King of Spain. Despite the easy recapture of Madrid, and nominal control by Joseph's government over many cities and provinces, Joseph's reign over Spain was always tenuous at best, and constantly resisted by pro-Bourbon guerrillas. Joseph and his supporters never established complete control over the country.

King Joseph's Spanish supporters were called josefinos or afrancesados (frenchified). During his reign, he ended the Spanish Inquisition, partly because Napoleon was at odds with Pope Pius VII at the time. Despite such efforts to win popularity, Joseph's foreign birth and support, plus his membership in a Masonic lodge,[4] virtually guaranteed he would never be accepted as legitimate by the bulk of the Spanish people. During Joseph's rule of Spain, Venezuela declared independence (1810) from Spain, the first nation to do so. The king had virtually no influence over the course of the ongoing Peninsular War: Joseph's nominal command of French forces in Spain was mostly illusory, as the French commanders theoretically subordinate to King Joseph insisted on checking with Napoleon before carrying out Joseph's instructions.

King Joseph abdicated and returned to France after defeat of the main French forces to the British at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813. He was seen by Bonapartists as the rightful Emperor of the French after the death of Napoleon's own son Napoleon II in 1832, although he did little to advance his claim.

United States[edit]

Joseph lived primarily in the United States (where he sold the jewels he had taken from Spain) in the period 1817–1832,[5] initially in New York City and Philadelphia, where his house became the centre of activity for French expatriates, but later moved to an estate, formerly owned by Stephen Sayre, called Point Breeze in Bordentown, New Jersey. Joseph's home was located near the confluence of Crosswicks Creek and the Delaware River. He considerably expanded Sayre's home and created extensive gardens in the picturesque style. When his first home was destroyed by fire in January 1820 he converted his stables into a second grand house. At Point Breeze, Joseph entertained many of the leading intellectuals and politicians of his day.

He was also reputed to have encountered the Jersey Devil while hunting there.[6]

Reputedly some Mexican revolutionaries offered to crown him Emperor of Mexico in 1820, but he declined.[5]

Joseph Bonaparte returned to Europe, where he died in Florence, Italy, and was buried in the Les Invalides building complex in Paris.[7]

Gallery[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 7 January 1768-circa 1795:Nobile Giuseppe Buonaparte
  • circa 1795-1804: Joseph Bonaparte
  • 1804-30 March 1806: Joseph-Napoleon, French Prince
  • 30 March 1806 – 6 June 1808: His Majesty By the Grace of God and the Constitution of the State, King of Naples.
  • 6 June 1808 – 11 December 1813: His Majesty By the Grace of God, King of Spain and the Indies.
  • 1815-1833 (styled, not officially) Count of Survilliers

Legacy[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Growth of a Century: as Illustrated in the History of Jefferson County
  2. ^ 1880 and 1910 US CENSUS Pennsylvania population via Ancestry.com
  3. ^ J. M. Thompson, Napoleon Bonaparte: His Rise and Fall (1951) 244-45
  4. ^ Ross, Michael The Reluctant King, 1977, pp. 34–35
  5. ^ a b "Joseph Bonaparte at Point Breeze". Flat Rock. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  6. ^ Schlosser, S. E. (2011). "Joseph Bonaparte and the Jersey Devil". AmericanFolklore.net. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  7. ^ Kwoh, Leslie (10 June 2007). "Yes, a Bonaparte feasted here". Star Ledger. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 

Further reading[edit]

See also the University of Pennsylvania Press biography: The Man who had been King: The American Exile of Napoleon's Brother Joseph, by Patricia Tyson Stroud. This book received the New Jersey Council for the Humanities first place book award in 2006.

External links[edit]

Media related to Joseph Bonaparte at Wikimedia Commons

Joseph Bonaparte
Born: 7 January 1768 Died: 28 July 1844
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ferdinand IV
King of Naples
1806 – 1808
Succeeded by
Joachim I
Preceded by
Ferdinand VII
King of Spain
1808 – 1813
Succeeded by
Ferdinand VII
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Napoléon II
— TITULAR —
Emperor of the French
King of Italy

22 July 1832 – 28 July 1844
Succeeded by
Louis I