|Subfamilies & Tribes|
See also Taxonomy of Tortricidae for full list of genera.
|Over 1,050 genera
Over 10,350 species
Tortricidae is a family of moths, commonly known as tortrix moths or leafroller moths, in the order Lepidoptera. Tortricidae is a large family with over 10,350 species described, and is the sole member of the superfamily Tortricoidea. Many of these are economically important pests. Olethreutidae is a junior synonym. The typical resting posture is with the wings folded back producing a rather rounded profile.
Some common Tortricids
The Tortricids include many economically important pests, including :-
- Summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana)
- Fruit tree tortrix moth (Archips podana)
- Rose leaf roller (Archips rosana)
- Argyrotaenia ljungiana, a pest on vines, maize and fruit trees
- Peach moth (Cydia molesta)
- Codling moth (Cydia pomonella)
- Plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana)
- Pea moth (Cydia nigricana)
- Chestnut and acorn moth (Cydia splendana)
- Light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana)
- Hemp borer (Grapholita delineana)
- Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta)
- Cherry fruitworm (Grapholita packardi)
- European Grapevine Moth (Lobesia botrana)
- Barred fruit tree tortrix moth (Pandemis cerasana)
- Grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana)
- Long-palped tortrix (Vine leaf roller) (Sparganothis pilleriana)
- Bud moth (Spilonota ocellana)
- False codling moth (Thaumatotibia (Cryptophlebia) leucotreta)
- Spruce budworm (Genus Choristoneura)
See also Mexican jumping bean moth (Cydia deshaisiana)
A typical tortricid - the codling moth
Tortricidae is considered to be the single most important family of insects that feed on apples, both economically and in diversity of feeding found on fruit, buds, leaves and shoots. In New York state, no fewer than 17 species of Tortricidae have gained pest status in regards to apple production.
The Codling moth Cydia pomonella causes worm-holes in apples. It has been accidentally spread from its original range in Europe and is now found in North and South America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand wherever apples are grown. Control has required the use of the harshest available insecticides - historically lead arsenate and DDT were used for control. These chemicals brought considerable environmental dangers, and in any case the insect gradually developed resistance to them. Currently organophosphate sprays are favored and are timed carefully to catch the hatching larvae before they can bore into the fruit.
- Firefly Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders, edited by Christopher O'Toole, ISBN 1-55297-612-2, 2002
- http://bugguide.net/node/view/9524, BugGuide
- van Nieukerken et al. (2011). "Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness". Zootaxa 3148: 212–221.
- http://books.google.com/books?id=MkJCsEctl1UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=tortricidae&source=bl&ots=jpdCnZmYqZ&sig=JTIsraLPbRmvpdQA3wrLrdRlucs&hl=en&ei=335ETP_kNoH6lwer3aGWDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDcQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q&f=false, Tortricidae, by John W. Brown, Joaquin Baixeras
|Wikispecies has information related to: Tortricidae|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tortricidae.|
- British Tortricoid Moths.
- Family Tortricidae at Lepidoptera.pro
- Eurasian Tortricidae
- Tortricid Fauna of Apple In New York.(LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE): Including An Account Of Apples' Occurrence In The State, Especially As A Naturalized Plant, written by P.J. Chapman and S.E. Link, Geneva: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, 1971
- Rhyacionia frustrana, Nantucket pine tip moth on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site