Toyota KD engine
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First appearing in 2000, the 1KD-FTV is one of the newest engines built by Toyota.
The 1KD-FTV is a 3.0L (2982cc) straight-4 common rail diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger and Intercooler. It has 16 valves and a DOHC (double overhead camshaft) design. Bore is 96 mm and stroke is 103 mm. It generates 170 hp (127 kW) at 3400 rpm, and 260 lbf·ft (352 N·m) of torque at 1800-3400 rpm. Redline of this engine is at 4200 RPM. Compression ratio is 17.9:1.
This engine uses Toyota's D-4D Common Rail fuel injection technology operating at ultra high pressures of up to 135 mpa (1350 bar or about 19,580 psi) which is about 8 times more than the pressure of conventional fuel injection systems within a "common rail" that feeds the injectors on all four cylinders. This is combined with a 32-bit ECU which controls fuel quantity, valve-timing, and boost pressure at different engine parameters resulting in best fuel economy and also full utilization of power during acceleration. Pilot injection is also utilized by the common rail fuel system to smooth engine operation. Small amounts of fuel are introduced into the combustion chamber prior to the main injection event, reducing lag time and promoting more continuous and complete combustion. Exterior and interior engine noise is also reduced.
The 1KD engine produces 17% more power with 11% less fuel consumption than its predecessor, the 1KZ engine.
Due to the non availability of Low Sulphur Diesel to much of the world, injector failure is very common with this engine. It presents a big issue with the injectors which is still pending to be solved. In Spain, they change the injectors within the first 7 seven years after buy, but still no solution is provided by the manufacturer.
Appearing in 2001, the 2KD-FTV is the 2nd generation of the KD series of engine with a smaller 2.5 L (2494 cc) displacement.
The displacement of this engine is based on the previous 2L engine. Bore remains the same 92 mm but stroke is increased to 93.8 mm. It has 16 valves and is a DOHC engine with a turbocharger and intercooler.
It produces 101 horsepower (75 kW) at 3400 rpm and 191.7 lb·ft (260 N·m) of torque at 1600-3600 rpm without an intercooler and 118 hp (88 kW) at 3400 rpm and 239.85 ft·lbf (325 N·m) of torque at 1600-3600 rpm for the intercooled version. Toyota Thailand, however, has updated the turbocharger to variable nozzle turbo (VNT) with intercooler. This increased the horsepower to 142 hp (106 kW) at 3400 rpm and torque to 343 N·m (253 lb·ft) at 1600-2800rpm.
Compression ratio is 18.5:1. Redline of this engine is 4400 RPM. This engine also uses D-4D Common Rail (Common rail direct fuel injection ) technology. The only major changes from the 1KD-FTV to the 2KD-FTV was the bore and the stroke.
This engine is used in the Toyota Hilux, Toyota Fortuner, Toyota Innova and Toyota Hiace. In some Central and South American countries, Toyota also offered this engine on the 2003-2006 4Runner in limited quantities. It has planned to be used in the sixth generation Toyota Kijang in 2012.
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