Chamfer (geometry)

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Example chamfered pentagon
(v,e) --> (v+2e,3e)
A chamfered cube can be constructed by reducing the square faces, and connecting new edges to vertices at the original positions.
(v,e,f) --> (v+2e,4e,f+e)

In geometry, chamfering is a Conway polyhedron notation operation that modifies one polyhedron into another. It is similar to expansion, moving faces apart and outward, but also maintain the original vertices. For polyhedra, this operation adds new hexagonal faces in place of each original edges.

A polyhedron with e edges will have it chamfered form containing 2e new vertices, 3e new edges, and e new hexagonal faces.

Chamfered regular and quasiregular polyhedra[edit]

Class Regular Quasiregular
Seed Uniform polyhedron-33-t0.png
{3,3}
Uniform polyhedron-43-t0.png
{4,3}
Uniform polyhedron-43-t2.png
{3,4}
Uniform polyhedron-53-t0.png
{5,3}
Uniform polyhedron-53-t2.png
{3,5}
Dual cuboctahedron.png
aC
Dual icosidodecahedron.png
aD
Chamfered Alternate truncated cube.png
cT
Truncated rhombic dodecahedron2.png
cC
Chamfered octahedron.png
cO
Truncated rhombic triacontahedron.png
cD
Chamfered icosahedron.png
cI
Chamfered rhombic dodecahedron.png
caC
Chamfered rhombic triacontahedron.png
caD

Relation to Goldberg polyhedra[edit]

The chamfer operation applied in series creates progressively larger polyhedra with new hexagonal faces replacing edges from the previous one. The chamfer operator transforms G(m,n) to G(2m,2n).

A regular polyhedron, G(1,0), create a Goldberg polyhedra sequence: G(1,0), G(2,0), G(4,0), G(8,0), G(16,0)...

G(1,0) G(2,0) G(4,0) G(8,0) G(16,0)...
GIV Uniform polyhedron-43-t0.png
C
Truncated rhombic dodecahedron2.png
cC
Chamfered chamfered cube.png
ccC
Chamfered chamfered chamfered cube.png
cccC
GV Uniform polyhedron-53-t0.png
D
Truncated rhombic triacontahedron.png
cD
Chamfered chamfered dodecahedron.png
ccD
Chamfered chamfered chamfered dodecahedron.png
cccD
Chamfered chamfered chamfered chamfered dodecahedron.png
ccccD
GVI Uniform tiling 63-t0.png
H
Truncated rhombille tiling.png
cH
Chamfered chamfered hexagonal tiling.png
ccH

cccH

ccccH

The truncated octahedron or truncated icosahedron, G(1,1) creates a Goldberg sequence: G(1,1), G(2,2), G(4,4), G(8,8)....

G(1,1) G(2,2) G(4,4)...
GIV Uniform polyhedron-43-t12.png
tO
Chamfered truncated octahedron.png
ctO
Chamfered chamfered truncated octahedron.png
cctO
GV Uniform polyhedron-53-t12.png
tI
Chamfered truncated icosahedron.png
ctI
Chamfered chamfered truncated icosahedron.png
cctI
GVI Uniform tiling 63-t12.png
tH
Chamfered truncated triangular tiling.png
ctH

cctH

A truncated tetrakis hexahedron or pentakis dodecahedron, G(3,0), creates a Goldberg sequence: G(3,0), G(6,0), G(12,0)...

G(3,0) G(6,0) G(12,0)...
GIV Conway polyhedron dktO.png
tkC
ctkC cctkC
GV Conway polyhedron Dk6k5tI.png
tkD
Chamfered truncated pentakis dodecahedron.png
ctkD
cctkD
GVI Truncated hexakis hexagonal tiling.png
tkH
Chamfered truncated hexakis hexagonal tiling.png
ctkH
cctkH

Chamfered regular tilings[edit]

Chamfered regular tilings
Square tiling uniform coloring 1.png
Square tiling, Q
{4,4}
Uniform tiling 63-t2.png
Triangular tiling, Δ
{3,6}
Uniform tiling 63-t0.png
Hexagonal tiling, H
{6,3}
Chamfered square tiling.png Chamfered triangular tiling.png Chamfered hexagonal tiling.png Truncated rhombille tiling.png Chamfered hexagonal tiling2.png
cQ cH

Chamfered polytopes and honeycombs[edit]

Like the expansion operation, chamfer can be applied to any dimension. For polygons, it triples the number of vertices. For polychora, new cells are created around the original edges, The cells are prisms, containing two copies of the original face, with pyramids augmented onto the prism sides.

Chamfered tetrahedron[edit]

Chamfered tetrahedron
!bgcolor=#e7dcc3 colspan=2
Conway notation cT
Goldberg polyhedron GIII(2,0)
Faces 4 triangless
6 hexagons
Edges 24 (2 types)
Vertices 16 (2 types)
Vertex configuration (12) 3.6.6
(4) 6.6.6
Symmetry group Tetrahedral (Td)
Dual polyhedron Alternate-triakis octahedron
Properties convex, equilateral-faced

The chamfered tetrahedron (or alternate truncated cube) is a convex polyhedron constructed as an alternately truncated cube or chamfer operation on a tetrahedron, replacing its 6 edges with hexagons.

It is the Goldberg polyhedron GIII(2,0), containing triangular and hexagonal faces.

It can look a little like a truncated tetrahedron, Uniform polyhedron-33-t12.png, which has 4 hexagonal and 4 triangular faces, which is the related Goldberg polyhedron: GIII(1,1).


Chamfered cube[edit]

Chamfered cube
Chamfered cube
Conway notation cC = t4daC
Goldberg polyhedron GIV(2,0)
Faces 6 squares
12 hexagons
Edges 48 (2 types)
Vertices 32 (2 types)
Vertex configuration (24) 4.6.6
(8) 6.6.6
Symmetry Oh, [4,3], (*432)
Dual polyhedron Tetrakis cuboctahedron
Properties convex, zonohedron, equilateral-faced
Truncated rhombic dodecahedron net.png
net

In geometry, the chamfered cube (also called truncated rhombic dodecahedron) is a convex polyhedron constructed from the rhombic dodecahedron by truncating the 6 (order 4) vertices.

The 6 vertices are truncated such that all edges are equal length. The original 12 rhombic faces become flattened hexagons, and the truncated vertices become squares.

The hexagonal faces are equilateral but not regular. They are formed by a truncated rhombus, have 2 internal angles of about 109.47 degrees (\cos^{-1}(-\frac{1}{3})) and 4 internal angles of about 125.26 degrees, while a regular hexagon would have all 120 degree angles.

Because all its faces have an even number of sides with 180 degree rotation symmetry, it is a zonohedron. It is also the Goldberg polyhedron GIV(2,0), containing square and hexagonal faces.

Coordinates[edit]

The chamfered cube is the Minkowski sum of a rhombic dodecahedron and a cube of side length 1 when eight vertices of the rhombic dodecahedron are at (\pm 1, \pm 1, \pm 1) and its six vertices are at the permutations of (\pm 2, 0, 0).

This polyhedron is similar to the uniform truncated octahedron:

Chamfered cube
Truncated rhombic dodecahedron2.png
Truncated octahedron
Truncated octahedron.png

We can construct a Truncated octahedron model by twenty four chamfered cube blocks.[1]

Cc-block.jpg


Chamfered octahedron[edit]

Chamfered octahedron
Chamfered octahedron
Conway notation cO = t3daO
Faces 8 triangles
12 hexagons
Edges 48 (2 types)
Vertices 30 (2 types)
Vertex configuration (24) 3.6.6
(6) 6.6.6
Symmetry Oh, [4,3], (*432)
Dual polyhedron Triakis cuboctahedron
Properties convex

In geometry, the chamfered octahedron is a convex polyhedron constructed from the rhombic dodecahedron by truncating the 8 (order 3) vertices.

The 8 vertices are truncated such that all edges are equal length. The original 12 rhombic faces become flattened hexagons, and the truncated vertices become triangles.

The hexagonal faces are equilateral but not regular.

Chamfered dodecahedron[edit]

Chamfered dodecahedron
Chamfered dodecahedron
Conway notation cD=t5daD
Goldberg polyhedron GV(2,0)
Fullerene C80[2]
Faces 12 pentagons
30 hexagons
Edges 120 (2 types)
Vertices 80 (2 types)
Vertex configuration (60) 5.6.6
(20) 6.6.6
Symmetry group Icosahedral (Ih)
Dual polyhedron Pentakis icosidodecahedron
Properties convex, equilateral-faced

The chamfered dodecahedron (also called truncated rhombic triacontahedron) is a convex polyhedron constructed as a truncation of the rhombic triacontahedron. It can more accurately be called a pentatruncated rhombic triacontahedron because only the order-5 vertices are truncated.

These 12 order-5 vertices can be truncated such that all edges are equal length. The original 30 rhombic faces become non-regular hexagons, and the truncated vertices become regular pentagons.

The hexagon faces can be equilateral but not regular with D2 symmetry. The angles at the two vertices with vertex configuration 6.6.6 are arccos(-1/sqrt(5)) = 116.565 degrees, and at the remaining four vertices with 5.6.6, they are 121.717 degrees each.

It is the Goldberg polyhedron GV(2,0), containing pentagonal and hexagonal faces.

This polyhedron looks very similar to the uniform truncated icosahedron which has 12 pentagons, but only 20 hexagons.

It also represents the exterior envelope of a cell-centered orthogonal projection of the 120-cell, one of six (convex regular 4-polytopes).

Chemistry[edit]

This is the shape of the fullerene C80; sometimes this shape is denoted C80(Ih) to describe its icosahedral symmetry and distinguish it from other less-symmetric 80-vertex fullerenes. It is one of only four fullerenes found by Deza, Deza & Grishukhin (1998) to have a skeleton that can be isometrically embeddable into an L1 space.


Chamfered icosahedron[edit]

Chamfered icosahedron
Chamfered icosahedron
Conway notation cI = t3daI
Faces 20 triangles
30 hexagons
Edges 168 (2 types)
Vertices 120 (2 types)
Vertex configuration (24) 3.6.6
(12) 6.6.6
Symmetry Ih, [5,3], (*532)
Dual polyhedron triakis icosidodecahedron
Properties convex

In geometry, the chamfered icosahedron is a convex polyhedron constructed from the rhombic dodecahedron by truncating the 20 order-3 vertices. The hexagonal faces can be made equilateral but not regular.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]