Tver Uprising of 1327
Tver uprising of 1327 was the first major uprising against the Tatar yoke. Brutally suppressed by the joint efforts of the Golden Horde, Muscovy and Vladimir-Suzdal. Actually led to a redistribution of power in favor of Moscow, drawing a line under a quarter-century rivalry between Moscow and Tver for supremacy in the North-Eastern. The most detailed account of events in 1327 is contained in the collection and Tversky Rogozhskom Chronicle.
In autumn 1326 the prince of Tver Alexander got from the Mongol Khan Uzbek label on the great reign of Vladimir. About a year later in Tver with a large retinue came Shevkal (Cholhan or clicks), cousin Uzbek. He settled in the prince's palace, kicked out of Alexander, after which "created a great persecution of Christians - rape, robbery, beatings, and a reproach." Went even hearing (by itself is fantastic, but the characteristic mentality), if clicks going to kill himself and princes sit on the throne of Tver, and Russian people to convert to Islam, supposedly it had to happen on the Feast of the Assumption. According to the chronicle story, people of Tver addressed to Alexander, offering to deal with the Tartars, but he urged them to "tolerate".
However, August 15, 1327 a rebellion broke out spontaneously, began with attempts Tatars from the suite Cholhana take the mare from a certain deacon Dudko; indignant people stood up for the deacon, and then destroy the Tartars rushed across the city. Cholhan with his entourage tried to defend himself at his residence, the princely palace - and was burnt alive along with the palace, were killed all the Tatars, who were in Tver, including "Bessermen" - Horde merchants. Some chronicles (outside Tver) exhibit Alexander instigator of unrest, but according to modern historians, Alexander could not be initiated explicitly suicidal rebellion, yet it has not taken measures to calm the crowd.
Moscow Prince Ivan Kalita, Tver's longtime rival in the fight for Vladimir Grand Buffet - hastened to take advantage of a disaster in Tver, to assert its supremacy in Russia. He went to the Horde and volunteered to help restore the power of the Mongols over Russia. Uzbek promised to make the Grand Duke Ivan gave him 50,000 soldiers under the five temnikov and told him to go to Alexander's. To a Horde-Moscow forces joined forces Alexander Vasilyevich Suzdal. In Russia, this campaign became known as "Fedorchukova army" after the Tatar commander Fedorchuk (Christian).
Started disaster. Muscovites and Horde burnt towns and villages, people were taken prisoner and, as the Chronicle, "Let all the earth put Russian." Tver Prince Alexander fled to Novgorod and then in Pskov. Novgorod bought off, giving the Horde 2000 hryvnia silver and many gifts. Ivan and his allies demanded the extradition of Alexander, Metropolitan Alexander Feognost excommunicated from the church and Pskov. Averting the threat of invasion from Pskov, Alexander in 1329 went to Lithuania (one and a half years).
Revolt undermined the power of Tver and led to a redistribution of political balance in northeastern Russia. In 1328, Khan shared a great reign between Ivan, received Novgorod and Kostroma, Suzdal and Alexander Vasilyevich, who got himself and Vladimir Volga (apparently, Nizhny Novgorod and Gorodets). Giving grand label weaker of the two princes, Khan could follow the principle of "divide and rule".
After the death of Alexander V. in 1331 or 1332 and Lower Gorodets about a decade back in the Grand Duchy, and Ivan Kalita became the sole ruler of the North-Eastern Russia. Policy of centralization, building on Khan led to the rapid rise of Moscow due to Tver. Tver principality no longer represented a real threat to Moscow. Main competition went with the princes of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod.
- ПОВЕСТЬ О ШЕВКАЛЕ
- Карамзин Н. М. История государства Российского. Том IV, глава VIII.