Ujelang Atoll (Marshallese: Wūjlan̄, [u̯u͡izʲ(e)lʲæ͡ɑŋ]) is a coral atoll of 30 islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands. Its total land area is only 1.86 square kilometres (0.72 sq mi), but it encloses a lagoon of 185.94 square kilometres (71.79 sq mi). It is the westernmost island in the Marshall Islands, and located approximately 217 kilometres (135 mi) southeast of Enewetak, and approximately 600 kilometres (370 mi) west of the main Ralik Chain.
Ujelang Atoll was claimed by the Empire of Germany along with the rest of the Marshall Islands in 1884. It was the private property of German trading companies since 1880, who maintained copra-plantations on the largest island, also called Ujelang. After World War I, the island came under the South Pacific Mandate of the Empire of Japan. In 1935 there were only some 40 inhabitants. During World War II, the island was occupied by the Company I, 111th Infantry Regiment, which landed on April 22, 1944 and which used the island as a staging area prior to redeployment to Peleliu on February 1, 1945. Following the end of World War II, the island came under the control of the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands until the independence of the Marshall Islands in 1986. The island became a relocation center for the people of Enewetak Atoll in 1947 (due to atomic tests on that island from 1948–1958). The population on Ujelang grew from 145 in 1947 to 342 in 1973, despite near-famine and epidemics, especially in the fifties, due to the scarce supply of fish and vegetables. After the clean-up of Enewetak all inhabitants returned to that island in 1980. A hundred or so soon returned to Ujelang because Enewetak could not support them, but their stay on Ujelang was short-lived. In 1989 Ujelang became permanently uninhabited. Ujelang Atoll is currently owned by the Enewetak Council and is now very rarely visited.
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