Sahaptin tribal representatives in Washington D.C. c.1890.
John McBain (far left), Cayuse chief
, Palouse chief
, and far right, Lee Moorhouse, Umatilla Indian Agent.
, Walla Walla chief
, and Cayuse Young Chief
Umatilla are a Sahaptin-speaking Native American group who traditionally inhabited the Columbia Plateau region of the northwestern United States, along the Umatilla and Columbia rivers. [1 ]
History [ edit ]
Early development [ edit ]
The Umatilla nation was bordered by the
Teninos to the West and the Klickitats to north, across the Columbia River. Also by their northern border were the [2 ] Wasco-Wishrams. Because of their homeland lacked natural defenses, the Umatillas were attacked from the south by groups of [2 ] Bannocks and Paiutes. [2 ]
Umatilla language is part of the Sahaptin division of the Penutian language family — closely related to other peoples of today's Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and the Idaho panhandle. These included the [1 ] Nez Percé, Cayuse, Walla Walla, and the Yakima. These peoples were ravaged by [1 ] smallpox and other infectious diseases contracted from European colonists during the first half of the 19th century and their populations depleted, as they had no immunity. [1 ]
In 1855 the inland Sahaptin-speaking nations were forced to surrender their historic homelands under treaty to the United States government, in exchange for territorial set-asides on
reservations. [1 ]
Reservation period [ edit ]
Today the Umatilla share land and a governmental structure with the Cayuse and the Walla Walla tribes as part of the federally recognized
Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Their reservation is located near Pendleton, Oregon and the Blue Mountains.
A number of places and geographic features have been named after the tribe, such as the
Umatilla River, Umatilla County, and Umatilla National Forest. The impoundment of the Columbia River behind the John Day Dam is called Lake Umatilla.
Notable Umatillas [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
^ a b c d e "Umatilla," in Barbara A. Leitch, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Tribes of North America. Algonac, MI: Reference Publications, Inc., 1979; pp. 490-491.
^ a b c Hines, Donald M. The Forgotten Tribes, Oral Tales of the Teninos and Adjacent Mid-Columbia River Indian Nations. Great Eagle Publishing. Issaquah, WA. 1991, p. 55.
Further reading [ edit ]
External links [ edit ]
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