United States Ambassador to Cuba

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ambassador of the United States to Cuba
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Incumbent
None
Inaugural holder Herbert G. Squiers
as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Formation May 20, 1902
Abolished January 1961

Cuba was the last major Spanish colony to gain independence, following a lengthy struggle that began in 1868. José Martí, Cuba’s national hero, helped initiate the final push for independence in 1895. In 1898, the United States fought a brief war known as the Spanish-American War, after the USS Maine sank in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898 due to an explosion of undetermined origin. In December 1898, Spain relinquished control of Cuba to the United States with the Treaty of Paris. On May 20, 1902, the United States granted Cuba its independence but retained the right to intervene to preserve Cuban independence and stability in accordance with the Platt Amendment.

In 1902 the US established an embassy in Havana and appointed its first ambassador, Herbert G. Squiers.

In 1934, the Platt Amendment was repealed. The United States and Cuba concluded a Treaty of Relations in 1934 which, among other things, continued the 1903 agreements that leased the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base to the United States.

In 1959 Fidel Castro’s 26th of July Movement overthrew the government of Fulgencio Batista and Batista fled the country on January 1, 1959. Relations between the United States and Cuba deteriorated rapidly as the Cuban government expropriated U.S. properties and developed closening ties with the Soviet Union.

In October 1960 the US recalled its ambassador in Cuba to protest Castro’s policies. On January 3, 1961 the US withdrew diplomatic recognition of the Cuban government and closed the embassy in Havana.

On September 1, 1977 the US established the United States Interests Section in Havana located in the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana. The mission is headed by Chief of Mission rather than an ambassador.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
  • Herbert G. Squiers
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 20, 1902
    • Presented credentials: May 27, 1902
    • Terminated mission: Left post, December 2, 1905
  • Edwin V. Morgan[1]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 29, 1905
    • Presented credentials: March 1, 1906
    • Terminated mission: Left post, January 5, 1910
  • John Brinkerhoff Jackson
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 21, 1909
    • Presented credentials: March 22, 1910
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, October 27, 1911
  • Arthur M. Beaupre
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 12, 1911
    • Presented credentials: December 18, 1911
    • Terminated mission: Left post, June 28, 1913
  • William E. Gonzales – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 21, 1913
    • Presented credentials: August 9, 1913
    • Terminated mission: Left post, December 18, 1919
  • Boaz W. Long – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 30, 1919
    • Presented credentials: January 8, 1920
    • Terminated mission: Left post, June 17, 1921
  • Note: In 1921 the title of the commission was changed to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
  • Enoch H. Crowder – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 10, 1923
    • Presented credentials: March 5, 1923
    • Terminated mission: Left post, May 28, 1927
  • Noble Brandon Judah – Political appointee[2]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 22, 1927
    • Presented credentials: December 17, 1927
    • Terminated mission: December 23, 1927; Left post, June 1, 1929
  • Harry F. Guggenheim – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 10, 1929
    • Presented credentials: November 21, 1929
    • Terminated mission: Left post, April 2, 1933
  • Sumner Welles – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 24, 1933
    • Presented credentials: May 11, 1933
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 13, 1933
  • Note: Normal relations were interrupted on September 5, 1933; the new Government of Cuba was still unrecognized by the United States when Welles left post on December 13, 1933.
  • Jefferson Caffery – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 23, 1934
    • Presented credentials: February 28, 1934
    • Terminated mission: Left post, March 9, 1937
  • J. Butler Wright – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 13, 1937
    • Presented credentials: August 23, 1937
    • Terminated mission: Died at post, December 4, 1939
  • George S. Messersmith – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 12, 1940
    • Presented credentials: March 8, 1940
    • Terminated mission: Presented recall, February 8, 1942
  • Spruille Braden – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 20, 1941
    • Presented credentials: May 19, 1942
    • Terminated mission: Left post, April 27, 1945
  • R. Henry Norweb – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 21, 1945
    • Presented credentials: July 24, 1945
    • Terminated mission: Left post, May 22, 1948
  • Robert Butler – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 22, 1948
    • Presented credentials: June 8, 1948
    • Terminated mission: Left post, February 10, 1951
  • Willard L. Beaulac – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 20, 1951
    • Presented credentials: September 20, 1951
    • Terminated mission: Left post, August 9, 1953
  • Arthur Gardner – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 28, 1953
    • Presented credentials: October 16, 1953
    • Terminated mission: Left post, June 16, 1957
  • Earl E. T. Smith – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 3, 1957
    • Presented credentials: July 23, 1957
    • Terminated mission: Left post, January 19, 1959
  • Philip W. Bonsal – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 16, 1959
    • Presented credentials: March 3, 1959
    • Terminated mission: Left post, October 28, 1960
  • Daniel M. Braddock was serving as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when the United States severed diplomatic relations with Cuba in January 1961.

Chiefs of the US Interests Section[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Morgan was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 11, 1905.
  2. ^ Judah was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 17, 1927.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]