Enoch Crowder

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Enoch Herbert Crowder
EnochCrowder1.jpg
Major General Enoch Herbert Crowder
13th Judge Advocate General of the United States Army
Born (1859-04-11)April 11, 1859
Edinburg, Missouri
Died May 7, 1932(1932-05-07) (aged 73)
Washington, D.C.
Resting Place Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington, Virginia
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch United States Department of the Army Seal.svg United States Army
Years of service 1881–1923
Rank US-O8 insignia.svg Major General
Commands held Judge Advocate General
Battles/wars American Indian Wars
Spanish-American War
World War I
Awards Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Medal

Major General Enoch Herbert Crowder, USA (April 11, 1859 – May 7, 1932) commonly referred to as General Crowder, was an American Army lawyer who served as the Judge Advocate General of the United States Army from 1911 to 1923. Crowder is most noted for implementing and administering the United States Selective Service Act of 1917 during World War I, an act which drafted thousands of American men into military service during World War I.

Early life and education[edit]

Enoch Crowder was born in Edinburg, Missouri where he also attended Grand River College. Following education in the local schools, he tried his hand at farming and rural school-teaching. He entered the United States Military Academy in 1877, graduating in 1881. Lieutenant Crowder was assigned to the 8th Cavalry, then stationed near Brownsville, Texas. During this tour he studied law, and in 1884 gained admission to the Texas bar. The same year, Crowder obtained a long-sought transfer to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri.

In 1885, Lieutenant Crowder was given an assignment he sought – Professor of Military Science at the University of Missouri. Here he instructed two companies of cadets, working meanwhile toward a law degree which he obtained in 1886. Soon after obtaining his law degree, Crowder was promoted to First Lieutenant and ordered to rejoin his regiment as a troop commander in the Geronimo campaign. Following the end of that campaign in September 1886 he returned to the University of Missouri where he resumed teaching until 1889.

Judge Advocate General[edit]

Upon completion of this detail, Lieutenant Crowder returned to the 8th Cavalry at Fort Yates, Dakota Territory, where he participated in the final campaign against Sitting Bull. In 1891, upon his promotion to Captain he accepted a position as the acting Judge Advocate General of the Department of the Platte in Omaha, Nebraska. In January 1895, this temporary branch transfer became final and Crowder was promoted to Major.

The beginning of the Spanish-American War marked his promotion to Lieutenant Colonel. From 1898–1901 while in the Philippines, he served as a judge advocate, and later served as secretary to the island governors, one who was Arthur MacArthur, Jr., father of Douglas MacArthur. He also served on the commission which arranged the Spanish surrender of the Philippines. During his service in the Philippines, he filled many important posts in the military government of the Islands, specializing in military law. In 1899, he headed the Board of Claims, served on the Philippine Supreme Court, and drafted the new Philippine criminal code.

Impressed with the ability Crowder had demonstrated in the Philippines, Judge Advocate General Davis in 1901 called him to Washington to serve as Deputy Judge Advocate General. In this capacity, Crowder assisted in the prosecution of the then noteworthy Deming case in 1902, became a member of the General Staff, and attained the rank of Colonel. In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 he was senior American observer with the Japanese Army. From 1906 to 1909, while serving on the staff of the provisional governors in Cuba, he oversaw the Cuban elections in 1908, and later helped draft a body of laws for Cuba.

In 1910, he represented the United States at the Fourth Pan American Conference in Buenos Aires and in that capacity made official visits to Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Panama. On February 11, 1911, after studying the military justice and penal systems of France and England on a European tour, he returned to Washington to be promoted to Brigadier General and assume the duties as Judge Advocate General of the United States Army, a post he held for 12 years.

As Judge Advocate General, General Crowder initiated a number of innovations including the regular publication of Judge Advocate General opinions; the issuance of a new digest (published in 1912) of all JAG opinions issued since 1862; and a program for the legal education of line officers at government expense. He additionally supervised the revision of the Articles of War for the first time since 1874, revised the Manual for Courts-Martial and took an active part in prison reform in the Army.

Selective Service Act[edit]

On April 6, 1917, the United States officially entered World War I. As Provost Marshal of the Army, Crowder led the drafting of the Selective Service Act which was passed by the U.S. Congress in May 1917. General Crowder, as he became known, was also responsible for directing of the Selective Service and supervised the draft – the registration, classification, and induction – of all American men who were 18–30 years of age into the armed services – over 2,800,000 men during the war.

The officers who served under General Crowder during this period are legion. Among these are the following: Major Hugh S. Johnson, Major Cassius Dowell, Lieutenant Colonel Allen W. Gullion, Major John H. Wigmore, Major Charles B. Warren, Captain M. C. Cramer, and Lieutenant Colonel E. A. Kreger. Although offered a promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General in 1918, General Crowder, mindful of public and Congressional opposition to “swivel chair” generals, refused the promotion, seeking instead a field command.

In October 1917, Crowder was promoted to Major General. As Judge Advocate General, he supervised the administration of military justice in the Army during the period when the number of general courts-martial rose from 6,200 in 1917 to over 20,000 in 1918. In 1918, the offices of Secretary of War Newton Baker issued the "work or fight" order, and Crowder became in charge of executing the order which mandated that virtually every activity in the country support the war effort.

On September 26, 1918, in response to newspaper reports of military camps being overcome by the Great Influenza Pandemic, Crowder cancelled the military draft calls for October.[1]

Post-World War I[edit]

After the war, General Crowder found himself, along with the entire military justice system, the center of a storm of controversy, stemming from charges that the military justice system was “un-American.” Crowder, a perceptive critic of the system who had already commenced work on needed reform, now accelerated his efforts. The specific recommendations he submitted to Congress, most of which were subsequently adopted, included greater safeguards for the accused, changes in the composition and powers of special courts-martial, and the addition of an authority in the President to reverse or alter any court-martial sentence found to have been adjudged erroneously.

Ambassador to Cuba[edit]

In 1920 a bill authorizing the President to retire General Crowder with the rank and pay of a Lieutenant General was introduced in Congress but was never formally brought to the floor of the House for action. Crowder retired from the Army on February 14, 1923, after forty-six years of service, but his days of service to his country were not finished. On the same day he was appointed the first Ambassador from the United States to Cuba, a post which he held until 1927.

Retirement and death[edit]

From 1927 until his death in 1932, General Crowder was engaged in the private practice of law in Chicago. Among his honors and decorations were the Distinguished Service Medal, the Cuban Order of Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun, Knight Commander of the British Order of St. Michael and St. George, Commander of the Legion of Honor, and Commander of the Italian Order of the Crown.

Crowder died in Washington, D.C., on May 7, 1932. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Legacy[edit]

Perhaps the most apt description of the service to his country by Enoch H. Crowder is contained in the words of the late Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of State in the cabinet of President Herbert Hoover and Secretary of War in the cabinets of Presidents William Howard Taft and Franklin D. Roosevelt, who said of General Crowder:

"His record as Judge Advocate General and his later record as Provost Marshal General have constituted a page in the history of our Army upon which we can all look with deep satisfaction and admiration."[2]

His name is memorialized in his home state of Missouri through the naming of a state park in his honor and through the designation of the World War II training center at Neosho, Missouri, as Camp Crowder. The ROTC building at the University of Missouri, Crowder Hall, is also named in his honor.[3]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Morgan, George G. "Societal Events Influenced Our Ancestors' Lives", Ancestry Daily News, June 17, 2005.
  2. ^ Department of the Army Pamphlet: Military Law Review, vol. 32, April 1966
  3. ^ "The Military and Mizzou: 1861-1946". Muarchives.missouri.edu. Retrieved June 19, 2012.