United States House of Representatives elections, 1888

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1888
United States
1886 ←
November 6, 1888
(3 states held early elections,
and 6 new states were admitted during
this Congress holding elections in 1889 and 1890)
→ 1890

All 332[1] seats to the United States House of Representatives
167 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 152 seats 167 seats
Seats before 152 seats 167 seats
Seats won 171 seats 161 seats
Seat change Increase 19 Decrease 6

Speaker before election

John Carlisle
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Thomas Reed
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1888 were held to choose members of the 51st Congress, and were held at the same time as the election of President Benjamin Harrison.

Harrison's Republican Party gained a majority in the House at the expense of the Democratic Party, even though incumbent President Grover Cleveland actually received more votes than Harrison. The issue of tariffs played a key role in this election. The Democrats, with the support of farmers and laborers, wanted to lower tariffs in order to promote free trade, while the Republicans, backed by industry and big business, believed that higher tariffs were necessary to protect American manufacturing. Especially in industrializing regions, voters chose the Republican view on tariffs, as they gave the party a slim majority in the House.

Election summaries[edit]

Seven seats were added for the six new States of (in order of admission) North Dakota (1), South Dakota (2), Montana (1), Washington (1), Idaho (1), and Wyoming (1)

171 161
Republican Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 0 Steady 8 Steady
Arkansas District 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
California District 6 4 Steady 2 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 3 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1
Delaware At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Florida District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
Georgia District 10 0 Steady 10 Steady
Illinois District 20 13 Decrease 1 7 Increase 1
Indiana District 13 3 Decrease 4 10 Increase 4
Iowa District 11[2] 10 Increase 1 1 Steady
Kansas District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 2 Decrease 1 9 Increase 1
Louisiana District 6 1 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1
Maine[3] District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 2 Increase 1 4 Decrease 1
Massachusetts District 12 10 Increase 2 2 Decrease 2
Michigan District 11 9 Increase 3 2 Decrease 3
Minnesota District 5 5 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3
Mississippi District 7 0 Steady 7 Steady
Missouri District 14 4 Increase 2 10 Decrease 2
Nebraska District 3 3 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Nevada At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 2 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
New Jersey District 7 4 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
New York District 34 19 Increase 1 15 Decrease 1
North Carolina District 9[4] 3 Increase 2 6 Decrease 2
Ohio District 21 16 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1
Oregon[3] At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District[5] 28 21 Increase 1 7 Decrease 1
Rhode Island District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 0 Steady 7 Steady
Tennessee District 10 3 Increase 1 7 Decrease 1
Texas District 11 0 Steady 11 Steady
Vermont[3] District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10[6] 2 Decrease 4 8 Increase 5
West Virginia District 4 0 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1
Wisconsin District 9[6] 7 Steady 2 Increase 1
1889 elections (New States)
Montana At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
North Dakota At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Washington At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
1890 elections (New States)
Idaho At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Total[1] 332 171
51.5%
Increase 17 161
48.5%
Decrease 6
House seats
Republican
  
51.51%
Democratic
  
48.49%

Three states, with 7 seats between them, held elections early in 1888:

The previous election had 4 third-party candidates, 2 Labor, 1 Greenback, and 1 Independent.

The States admitted in 1889 all held their first election on October 1. Wyoming's 1st election was held on September 11, 1890, for both the 51st Congress and the 52nd Congress.[7] Idaho held two elections simultaneously on October 1, 1890, one for the 51st Congress and the other for the 52nd Congress.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+ to 100% Democratic
  80+ to 100% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  <=60% Democratic
  <=60% Republican
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3 to 5 Democratic gain
  3 to 5 Republican gain
  1 to 2 Democratic gain
  1 to 2 Republican gain
  no net change

Complete returns[edit]

Arkansas[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Arkansas 1 Poindexter Dunn Democratic 1878 Retired
Democratic hold
William H. Cate (D) 51.9%
Lewis P. Featherstone (L) 47.4%
Others 0.6%
Arkansas 2 Clifton R. Breckinridge Democratic 1882 Re-elected Clifton R. Breckinridge (D) 51.2%
John M. Clayton (R) 48.8%
Arkansas 3 Thomas C. McRae Democratic 1884 Re-elected Thomas C. McRae (D) 59.7%
John Ansley (L) 40.3%
Arkansas 4 John H. Rogers Democratic 1884 Re-elected John H. Rogers (D) 57.8%
Isaac McCacken (I) 42.2%
Arkansas 5 Samuel W. Peel Democratic 1884 Re-elected Samuel W. Peel (D) 68.9%
Edward P. Watson (I) 22.0%
John Gates (R) 9.1%

In the 1st district, initial returns showed William H. Cate (D) winning the election, but the election was contested by Lewis P. Featherstone (L), and on Mary 5, 1890, was declared the winner.

In the 2nd district, Clifton R. Breckinridge (D) was initially declared re-elected. John M. Clayton successfully contested the election, but was assassinated before the contest was complete, so the House declared the seat vacant. Breckinridge was then re-elected November 4, 1890 to finish the term.

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Thomas Larkin Thompson Democratic 1886 Lost re-election
Republican gain
John J. De Haven (R) 49.9%
Thomas L. Thompson (D) 49%
W. D. Reynolds (I) 1.1%
California 2 Marion Biggs Democratic 1886 Re-elected Marion Biggs (D) 50.6%
John A. Eagon (R) 46.6%
S. M. McLean (Pr) 2.4%
J. F. McSwain (I) 0.4%
California 3 Joseph McKenna Republican 1884 Re-elected Joseph McKenna (R) 56.0%
Ben Morgan (D) 41.2%
W. W. Smith (Pr) 1.9%
S. Solon Holl (I) 1.0%
California 4 William W. Morrow Republican 1884 Re-elected William W. Morrow (R) 50.8%
Robert Ferral (D) 48.6%
Frank M. Pixley (S) 0.6%
California 5 Charles N. Felton Republican 1884 Retired
Democratic gain
Thomas J. Clunie (D) 49.3%
Timothy G. Phelps (R) 49.2%
Henry French (I)
California 6 William Vandever Republican 1886 Retired
Republican hold
William Vandever (R) 52.5%
Reel B. Terry (D) 43.7%
J. G. Miller (Pr) 3.5%
Alfred Daggett (KN) 0.2%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Re-elected Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 67.1%
H. R. Benjamin (R) 32.9%
Florida 2 Charles Dougherty Democratic 1884 Retired
Democratic hold
Robert Bullock (D) 53.5%
Frederick S. Goodrich (R) 46.5%

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[8]
Ohio 1 Benjamin Butterworth Republican 1884 Re-elected Benjamin Butterworth (R) 52.6%
Otway Cosgrove (D) 47.4%
Ohio 2 Charles Elwood Brown Republican 1884 Retired
Republican hold
John A. Caldwell (R) 51.9%
Clinton W. Gerard (D) 48.1%
Ohio 3 Elihu S. Williams Republican 1886 Re-elected Elihu S. Williams (R) 50.5%
George W. Houk (D) 49.5%
Ohio 4 Samuel S. Yoder Democratic 1886 Re-elected Samuel S. Yoder (D) 60.6%
Robert L. Mattingly (R) 39.4%
Ohio 5 George E. Seney Democratic 1886 Re-elected George E. Seney (D) 57.9%
Wilson Vance (R) 42.1%
Ohio 6 Melvin M. Boothman Republican 1886 Re-elected Melvin M. Boothman (R) 50.1%
Gaylord M. Saltzgaber (D) 49.9%
Ohio 7 James E. Campbell Democratic 1886 Retired
Republican gain
Henry Lee Morey (R) 51.2%
John M. Pattison (D) 48.8%
Ohio 8 Robert P. Kennedy Republican 1886 Re-elected Robert P. Kennedy (R) 54.2%
Andrew R. Bohn (D) 45.8%
Ohio 9 William C. Cooper Republican 1884 Re-elected William C. Cooper (R) 53.0%
John S. Braddock (R) 47.0%
Ohio 10 Jacob Romeis Republican 1884 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain
William E. Haynes (D) 51.5%
Jacob Romeis (R) 48.5%
Ohio 11 Albert C. Thompson Republican 1886 Re-elected Albert C. Thompson (R) 56.8%
Joseph W. Shinn (D) 43.2%
Ohio 12 Jacob J. Pugsley Republican 1886 Re-elected Jacob J. Pugsley (R) 50.9%
Lawrence T. Neal (D) 49.1%
Ohio 13 Joseph H. Outhwaite Democratic 1884 Re-elected Joseph H. Outhwaite (D) 52.7%
John B. Neil (R) 47.3%
Ohio 14 Charles P. Wickham Republican 1886 Re-elected Charles P. Wickham (R) 51.5%
David L. Wadsworth (D) 48.5%
Ohio 15 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1886 Re-elected Charles H. Grosvenor (R) 53.5%
John P. Spriggs (D) 46.5%
Ohio 16 Beriah Wilkins Democratic 1886 Retired
Democratic hold
James W. Owens (D) 55.2%
Edwin L. Lybarger (R) 44.8%
Ohio 17 Joseph D. Taylor Republican 1886 Re-elected Joseph D. Taylor (R) 56.9%
William Lawrence (D) 43.1%
Ohio 18 William McKinley Republican 1886 Re-elected William McKinley (R) 54.4%
George P. Ikirt (D) 45.6%
Ohio 19 Ezra B. Taylor Republican 1880 (s) Re-elected Ezra B. Taylor (R) 67.5%
Henry Apthorp (D) 32.5%
Ohio 20 George W. Crouse Republican 1886 Retired
Republican Hold
Martin L. Smyser (R) 52.9%
Calvin P. Humphrey (D) 47.1%
Ohio 21 Martin A. Foran Democratic 1882 Retired
Republican gain
Theodore E. Burton (R) 50.8%
Tom L. Johnson (D) 49.2%

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Samuel Dibble Democratic 1882 Re-elected Samuel Dibble (D) 86.7%
S. W. McKinlay (R) 13.1%
Others 0.2%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman Democratic 1878 Re-elected George D. Tillman (D) 86.8%
Seymour E. Smith (R) 11.4%
Others 1.8%
South Carolina 3 James S. Cothran Democratic 1886 Re-elected James S. Cothran (D) 99.8%
Others 0.2%
South Carolina 4 William H. Perry Democratic 1884 Re-elected William H. Perry (D) 99.9%
Others 0.1%
South Carolina 5 John J. Hemphill Democratic 1882 Re-elected John J. Hemphill (D) 99.7%
Others 0.3%
South Carolina 6 George W. Dargan Democratic 1882 Re-elected George W. Dargan (D) 95.7%
Others 4.3%
South Carolina 7 William Elliott Democratic 1884 Re-elected William Elliott (D) 54.1%
Thomas E. Miller (R) 45.4%
Others 0.5%

In the 7th district, Elliott was initially declared re-elected, but Miller successfully challenged the election and was seated in his place in September, 1890.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Includes late elections
  2. ^ Previous election had 1 Greenback Party Representative
  3. ^ a b c Elections held early
  4. ^ Previous election had 1 Independent
  5. ^ At-large seat eliminated in redistricting
  6. ^ a b Previous election had 1 Labor Representative
  7. ^ Ourcampaigns article on Wyoming's initial election
  8. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 567, 568. 

See also[edit]