United States Senate elections, 1794
The United States Senate elections of 1794 was the election which had the formation of organized political parties in the United States, with the Federalist Party emerging from the Pro Administration coalition, and the Democratic-Republican Party emerging from the Anti-Administration coalition.
As this election was prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.
4th Congress (1795–1797)
- Majority Party: Federalist (20)
- Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (10)
- Other Parties: 0
- Total Seats: 30
Change in Senate composition
Note: There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.
End of the 3rd Congress
10 of the 30 Senators were up for re-election.
Beginning of the 4th Congress
James Gunn (Georgia) was associated with the Anti-Administration coalition in the previous Congress, but was a Federalist in the subsequent Congress. In later elections, this would be considered a party switch.
Complete list of races
All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats, except where noted.
|Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (Federalist)|
|Georgia||James Gunn||Anti-Administration||Incumbent re-elected to a new party
|James Gunn (Federalist)|
|Humphrey Marshall (Federalist)|
|Maryland||John Henry||Pro-Administration||Incumbent re-elected to a new party
|John Henry (Federalist)|
|New Hampshire||John Langdon||Anti-Administration||Incumbent re-elected to a new party
|John Langdon (Democratic-Republican)|
|New York||Rufus King||Pro-Administration||Incumbent re-elected to a new party
|Rufus King (Federalist)|
|North Carolina||Benjamin Hawkins||Anti-Administration||
|Timothy Bloodworth (Democratic-Republican)|
|William Bingham (Federalist)|
|South Carolina||Ralph Izard||Pro-Administration||
|Jacob Read (Federalist)|
|Vermont||Stephen R. Bradley||Anti-Administration||
|Elijah Paine (Federalist)|
Special (class 1)
|James Monroe||Anti-Administration||Resigned May 11, 1794.
Winner was elected November 18, 1794 to finish the term ending March 3, 1797
|Stevens Thomson Mason (Anti-Administration)|
Special (class 2)
|John Taylor||Anti-Administration||Resigned May 11, 1794.
Winner was elected November 18, 1794 to finish the term ending March 3, 1799
|Henry Tazewell (Anti-Administration)|
- Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
- Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
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