United States Senate elections, 1794

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The United States Senate elections of 1794 was the election which had the formation of organized political parties in the United States, with the Federalist Party emerging from the Pro Administration coalition, and the Democratic-Republican Party emerging from the Anti-Administration coalition.

As this election was prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results[edit]

4th Congress (1795–1797)

  • Majority Party: Federalist (20)
  • Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (10)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 30

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Note: There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

End of the 3rd Congress[edit]

A A A A A
P P A A A A A A A A
P
P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P

10 of the 30 Senators were up for re-election.

Beginning of the 4th Congress[edit]

DR DR DR DR DR
F F F F F DR DR DR DR DR
F
F F F F F F F F F
F F F F F

James Gunn (Georgia) was associated with the Anti-Administration coalition in the previous Congress, but was a Federalist in the subsequent Congress. In later elections, this would be considered a party switch.

Key:
A = Anti-Administration
DR = Democratic-Republican
F = Federalist
P = Pro-Administration
Majority
divider

Complete list of races[edit]

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats, except where noted.

State Incumbent Party Result Candidates
Connecticut Stephen Mitchell Pro-Administration Retired
Federalist gain
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (Federalist)
Georgia James Gunn Anti-Administration Incumbent re-elected to a new party
Federalist gain
James Gunn (Federalist)
Kentucky John Edwards Anti-Administration [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Federalist gain
Humphrey Marshall (Federalist)
Maryland John Henry Pro-Administration Incumbent re-elected to a new party
Federalist gain
John Henry (Federalist)
New Hampshire John Langdon Anti-Administration Incumbent re-elected to a new party
Democratic-Republican gain
John Langdon (Democratic-Republican)
New York Rufus King Pro-Administration Incumbent re-elected to a new party
Federalist gain
Rufus King (Federalist)
North Carolina Benjamin Hawkins Anti-Administration [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Democratic-Republican gain
Timothy Bloodworth (Democratic-Republican)
Pennsylvania Robert Morris Pro-Administration [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Federalist gain
William Bingham (Federalist)
South Carolina Ralph Izard Pro-Administration [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Federalist gain
Jacob Read (Federalist)
Vermont Stephen R. Bradley Anti-Administration [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Federalist gain
Elijah Paine (Federalist)
Virginia
Special (class 1)
James Monroe Anti-Administration Resigned May 11, 1794.
Winner was elected November 18, 1794 to finish the term ending March 3, 1797
Anti-Administration hold
Stevens Thomson Mason (Anti-Administration)
Virginia
Special (class 2)
John Taylor Anti-Administration Resigned May 11, 1794.
Winner was elected November 18, 1794 to finish the term ending March 3, 1799
Anti-Administration hold
Henry Tazewell (Anti-Administration)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.