Upper and Lower Egypt
|This article does not cite any references or sources. (November 2010)|
Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions, namely Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. To the north was Lower Egypt where the Nile stretched out with its several branches to form the Nile Delta. To the south was Upper Egypt, stretching to Syene. The two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt were united c. 3000 BC, but each maintained its own regalia: the hedjet or White Crown for Upper Egypt and the deshret or Red Crown for Lower Egypt. Thus, the pharaohs were known as the rulers of the Two Lands, and wore the pschent, a double crown, each half representing sovereignty of one of the kingdoms.
The terminology "Upper" and "Lower" derives from the flow of the Nile from the highlands of East Africa northwards to the Mediterranean Sea, so Upper Egypt lies to the south of Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt mostly consists of the Nile Delta.
There were differences between Upper and Lower Egyptians in the ancient world: they spoke different dialects and had different customs. Many of such differences and the occasional tensions they create still exist in modern times. In Egyptian Arabic, Lower Egyptians are known as baḥarwa and Upper Egyptians are known as "saa'ida" and speak a different dialect known as Sa'idi Arabic.