|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||456.70 g mol−1|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Ursolic acid (sometimes referred to as urson, prunol, malol, or 3-beta-3-hydroxy-urs-12-ene-28-oic-acid), is a pentacyclic triterpene acid, used in cosmetics that is also capable of inhibiting various cancer cell types by inhibiting the STAT3 activation pathway, one of which includes human fibrosarcoma by reducing expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 via glucocorticoid receptors. It may also decrease proliferation of cancer cells and induce apoptosis. Ursolic acid has also been shown to inhibit JNK expression and IL-2 activation of JURKAT leukemic T Cells leading to the reduction in proliferation and T cell activation.
Ursolic acid can serve as a starting material for synthesis of more potent bioactive derivatives, such as antitumor agents. It has been found to reduce muscle atrophy and to stimulate muscle growth in mice. Ursolic acid has potential use as a cardioprotective compound.
Ursolic acid has been shown to increase the amount of muscle and brown fat and decrease white fat obesity and associated conditions when added to diets fed to mice. Under physiological concentrations, ursolic acid also induces eryptosis (the apoptosis-like suicidal cell death in defective red blood cells).
Occurrences in food
including apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, rosemary, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, and prunes. Apple peels contain large quantities of ursolic acid and related compounds.
- PubChem 64945
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- Kaewthawee, Narawan; Brimson, Sirikalaya (February 2013). "THE EFFECTS OF URSOLIC ACID ON CYTOKINE PRODUCTION VIA THE MAPK PATHWAYS IN LEUKEMIC T-CELLS". EXCLI 12 (February): 102–114.
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- Kunkel, S. D.; Suneja, M.; Ebert, S. M.; Bongers, K. S.; Fox, D. K.; Malmberg, S. E.; Alipour, F.; Shields, R. K.; Adams, C. M. (2011). "MRNA Expression Signatures of Human Skeletal Muscle Atrophy Identify a Natural Compound that Increases Muscle Mass". Cell Metabolism 13 (6): 627–638. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2011.03.020. PMC 3120768. PMID 21641545.
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- Liobikas J, Majiene D, Trumbeckaite S, Kursvietiene L, Masteikova R, Kopustinskiene DM, Savickas A, Bernatoniene J.,"Uncoupling and antioxidant effects of ursolic acid in isolated rat heart mitochondria", J Nat Prod. 2011 Jul 22;74(7):1640-4
- Gnoatto, SC; Dassonville-Klimpt, A; Da Nascimento, S; Galéra, P; Boumediene, K; Gosmann, G; Sonnet, P; Moslemi, S (2008). "Evaluation of ursolic acid isolated from Ilex paraguariensis and derivatives on aromatase inhibition". European journal of medicinal chemistry 43 (9): 1865–77. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2007.11.021. PMID 18192087.
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- PMID 21923134
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- MacRae, Fiona. "An apple a day keeps the doctor away... as long as you eat the peel". Daily Mail (London).