Vienna Boys' Choir
The Vienna Boys' Choir (also The Vienna Choir Boys, German: Wiener Sängerknaben) is a choir of trebles and altos based in Vienna. It is one of the best known boys' choirs in the world. The boys are selected mainly from Austria, but also from many other countries.
The choir is a private, not-for-profit organization. There are approximately 100 choristers between the ages of ten and fourteen. The boys are divided into four touring choirs, named after Austrian composers Bruckner, Haydn, Mozart and Schubert, which combined perform about 300 concerts each year before almost 500,000 people. Each group tours for about nine to eleven weeks.
The choir is the modern-day descendant of the boys' choirs of the Viennese Court, dating back to the late Middle Ages. The choir was, for practical purposes, established by a letter from Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg on 7 July 1498, instructing court officials to employ a singing master, two basses and six boys. Jurij Slatkonja became the director of the ensemble. The role of the choir (numbering between 14 and 20) was to provide musical accompaniment for the church mass.
The boys received a solid musical education, which in most cases had a significant impact on the rest of their lives, as many went on to become professional musicians. The composers Jacobus Gallus and Franz Schubert, and the conductors Hans Richter, Felix Mottl, Georg Tintner and Clemens Krauss were members of the choir. Additionally, the Haydn brothers were members of the St. Stephen's Cathedral choir, directed at the time by Georg Reutter II who used this choir in his duties for the imperial court which at the time had no boy choristers of its own.
In 1920, following the fall of the Austrian Empire, the Hofkapelle (court orchestra) was disbanded. However, the rector at the time, Josef Schnitt, sought a continuation of the tradition. In 1924 the Vienna Boys' Choir was officially founded, and it has evolved into a professional music group. The choir adopted the now-famous blue and white sailor suit, replacing the imperial military cadet uniform that included a dagger. The composer HK Gruber is one of the graduates of the reformed choir.
In 1961, Walt Disney filmed Almost Angels, a fictional drama about (and starring) the Vienna Boys' Choir, set and filmed in the Palais Augarten. It was Disney who, for cinematographic reasons, persuaded the Austrian government to allow the boys to legally wear the Austrian national emblem on the breast of their uniform, a tradition that continues to this day.
Gerald Wirth became the choir's artistic director in 2001. However, since then, the choir has come under pressure to modernize and has faced criticism of their musical standards, leading to a split with the Vienna State Opera. The choir has for the first time had to advertise for recruits after a rival choir school was established by Ioan Holender, director of the opera company. He complained of both falling standards and poor communication with the choir. He said that the State Opera sometimes trained boys for particular stage roles, only to find out on the day of performance that they were unavailable as they had gone on tour with the choir. Some boys were attracted to the rival choir school by the prospect of a more relaxed atmosphere and of performance fees being paid directly to them. The Vienna Boys' Choir has sought to update its image, recording pop music selections and adopting an alternative uniform to the sailor suits used since the 1920s, allowing the boys to dance as they sing. After Eugen Jesser died in May 2008, Walter Nettig.[clarification needed] Gerald Wirth is its present director.
In 2010, following sexual abuse allegations from two former choristers stemming from the late 1960s and early 1980s, the Vienna Boys' Choir opened a confidential phone and e-mail hotline to allow others to come forward. Eight possible victims came forward saying they were abused, either by staff or other choir members.
- Wiener Sängerknaben Goes Christmas (2003)
- Frohe Weihnacht (Merry Christmas) (1999)
- Christmas in Vienna / Heiligste Nacht (1990)
- Merry Christmas from the Vienna Choir Boys (1982)
- Christmas with the Vienna Choir Boys (with Hermann Prey)
- Christmas with the Vienna Boys' Choir, London Symphony Orchestra (1990)
- Weihnacht mit den Wiener Sängerknaben (Hans Gillesberger 1980)
- The Little Drummer Boy (TV 1968)
- Die Wiener Sängerknaben und ihre Schönsten ... (1967)
- Frohe Weihnacht (1960)
- Christmas Angels (RCA Gold Seal)
- Silent Night
- I Am from Austria (2006)
- Wiener Sängerknaben Goes Pop (2002)
- Johann Sebastian Bach
- Ludwig van Beethoven
- Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber
- Benjamin Britten
- Anton Bruckner
- Antonio Caldara
- Jacobus Gallus
- George Frideric Handel
- Joseph Haydn
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- Franz Schubert
- Salomon Sulzer
Smaller works based on anthologies
- Anton Bruckner, Christus factus est pro nobis
- Anton Bruckner, Locus iste
- Anton Bruckner, Os justi
- Anton Bruckner, Virga Jesse
- Joseph Leopold Eybler, Omnes de Saba venient
- Gabriel Fauré, Pie Jesu
- Jacobus Gallus, Natus est nobis
- Jacobus Gallus, Pueri concinite
- Jacobus Gallus, Repleti sunt
- Georg Friedrich Händel, Zadok the Priest
- Joseph Haydn, Du bist's, dem Ruhm und Ehre gebühret
- Joseph Haydn, Insanae et vanae curae
- Michael Haydn, Lauft, ihr Hirten allzugleich
- Jacbus de Kerle, Sanctus - Hosanna - Benedictus
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Kyrie Es-Dur KV 322
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Kyrie d-moll KV 341
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Misericordias Domini KV 222
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Sub tuum praesidium
- Giovanni Nascus, Incipit lamentatio
- Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Hodie Christus natus est
- Michael Praetorius, In natali Domini
- Franz Schubert, Salve Regina D 386
- Franz Schubert, Tantum ergo D 962
- Franz Schubert, Totus in corde langueo D 136
- Giuseppe Verdi, Laudi alla Vergine Maria
- Giuseppe Verdi, Pater noster
- Tomás Luis de Victoria, O regem coeli
- Tomás Luis de Victoria, Una hora
- History from the Official web-site of the Choir
- Loof, Susanna (2002-12-08). "Busy, intense life in the choir is a whole lot of fun, students say". The Register-Guard.
- Norris, Geoffrey (2009-02-11). "HK Gruber: a composer who refuses to be bound by rules". The Daily Telegraph.
- Chapman, Clare (2003-03-02). "The Vienna Boys' Choir seeks new recruits for the first time". The Daily Telegraph.
- Leidig, Michael (2004-07-04). "Chorus of disapproval as Vienna Boys' Choir dons 'Star Trek' suits". The Sunday Telegraph.
- Homola, Victor (2010-03-17). "Austria: Choir Faces Abuse Allegations". The New York Times.