The origins of modern Austria date back to the ninth century, when the countryside of upper and lower Austria became increasingly populated. The name of AustriaOstarrîchi is first documented in an official document from 996. Since then this word has developed into the German word Österreich.
Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region of 3 million inhabitants, referred to as Twin City. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site.
Vienna was ranked #1 as the world's most livable city by the Mercer Survey in 2009 and 2010. Analytically, the city was ranked 1st globally for a culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and 2nd globally after Boston in 2009 from 256 cities on an analysis of 162 indicators in the Innovation Cities Index on a 3 factor score covering culture, infrastructure and markets.