||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (January 2013)|
|Preceded by:||C class|
|Succeeded by:||Battle class|
|General characteristics as built|
|Type:||Weapon class destroyer|
|Displacement:||1,980 tons (standard)|
|Tons burthen:||2,825 tons (full)|
|Length:||365 ft (111 m) o/a, 341.5 ft (104.1 m) p/p|
|Beam:||38 ft (12 m)|
|Draught:||14.5 ft (4.4 m)|
|Propulsion:||2 x Foster-Wheeler water-tube boilers, Parsons double-reduction geared steam turbines, 40,000 shp on 2 shafts|
|Speed:||31-knot (57 km/h)|
|Range:||630 tons oil, 5,000 nmi (9,300 km) at 20 knots (37 km/h)|
|Complement:||234 (256 in Battleaxe)|
|General characteristics (A/D conversion)|
The Weapon class was a class of destroyers built for the British Royal Navy towards the end of World War II. They were the smaller counterpart to the Battle class (which followed them) and were the first new destroyer designs for the Royal Navy since the Second World War Emergency Programme. 20 ships were planned, of which only 13 were laid down and 7 were launched, but the cessation of hostilities resulted in only 4 being completed for service. Two of the ships had been previously ordered (as Celt and Centaur) as part of the planned C class, or 15th Emergency flotilla, of 1944, but the orders were changed to the new design.
The hull length was not much increased over the War Emergency Programme design, but beam and draught were increased to allow for a displacement increase, as the latter design was grossly overweight with the addition of wartime technology to a relatively small hull. Two full sets of torpedo tubes were carried, a somewhat retrospective feature in a late-war design.
A criticism of the older designs was the use of adjacent boiler rooms. This had been adopted to allow for a single funnel, to lower the silhouette and increase the deck space of the relatively small hull. However, this made the ship vulnerable to being disabled by a single hit amidships. To remedy this, the Weapon class adopted the "unit" system, of side-by-side boiler and engine rooms with alternate port/starboard arrangement. This was standard practice in United States Navy ships, but these were generally far larger than their Royal Navy counterparts. The unit arrangement meant that 2 funnels were needed. The forward funnel was trunked up through the foremast and there was a small stump funnel between the torpedo tubes. This led to an unusual and rather unbalanced appearance, similar to that of the Daring class, and the Weapons were not the most attractive of ships.
The main improvement over earlier ships was to remedy the woefully inadequate arrangements for anti-aircraft defence. To this end, three twin 4-inch Mark XIV mountings were carried, remotely controlled by a Type 275 Radar equipped Mark VI(M) director, allowing full blind-fire against aircraft targets. The light battery consisted of 2 of the new STAAG (Stabilised Tachymetric Anti-Aircraft Gun) mounts for twin Bofors 40 mm guns and two single weapons on Mk. II mounts in the bridge wings. The STAAGs were carried on either side aft, and each had its own Type 262 Radar and predictive fire control computer, allowing for automatic blind-fire engagement of targets. The STAAGs were excellent weapons on paper and the firing range, but when exposed to the vibration of a naval gun mounting and the rigour of the elements they were less than reliable. Coupled with a mounting weight of 17 tons, they were something of a disappointment and their post-war service was limited. Type 293 Radar was carried on the lattice foremast for target indication.
To increase the anti-submarine capability of the class, it was decided to reduce the number of 4-inch mounts to 2, and to instead carry 2 "Squid" anti-submarine mortars. In Battleaxe and Broadsword, these replaced 'B' gun, in the others it was 'X' that was lost. The latter arrangement was in fact preferable for the location of the "squid", but less so for gunnery, as it meant that the main weapons were unable to fire aft, which was a criticism also levelled at the Battle class.
All four ships were plagued by their machinery, as the steam turbines had numerous design flaws. The problems were remedied by removing the steam feed to the lower half of the reversing turbine, but this halved reversing power, and as a consequence these ships were slow to decelerate and handled rather sluggishly. This problem proved fatal for Battleaxe, when she was unable to manoeuvre quickly enough to prevent herself being rammed by the frigate HMS Ursa in the Clyde in 1962. The damage was so catastrophic that it was beyond economical repair and she was written off as a total loss and scrapped.
The Weapons were never an entirely satisfactory design, and were criticised for their light gun armament and overly heavy torpedo outfit. Perhaps best thought of as fast fleet frigates, they undoubtedly possessed a quantum increase in fighting efficiency over the wartime emergency ships, and were more than capable of facing the increased threat of the enemy submarine and aircraft. It is possible that the mysterious G or Gael class design, which possessed 2 twin 4.5-inch (110 mm) semi-automatic Mark. VI guns was an attempt to remedy some of the deficiencies of the Weapons.
Orders and construction
The two ships authorised under the 1942 Programme as the Centaur and Celt of the "CE" class were ordered from Whites of Cowes on 3 February 1942; they were renamed Tomahawk and Sword when the order was altered to the new "Intermediate" design.
The 1943 Programme authorised 17 ships to this design. The first six were ordered on 2 April 1943 - Battleaxe and Broadsword (from Yarrow); Carronade and Claymore (from Scotts); and Crossbow and Culverin (from Thornycroft). The next seven were ordered on 24 April - Cutlass and Dagger (from Yarrow); Dirk, Grenade and Halberd (from Scotts); Howitzer (from Thornycroft); and Musket (from White). A final four were ordered on 27 May - Longbow (from Thornycroft); Poniard (from Scotts); and Rifle and Spear (from Denny).
Three ships were cancelled on 22 November 1944 - Grenade, Halberd and Poniard. Eight more were cancelled on 15 October 1945 - Sword, Claymore, Dagger, Dirk, Howitzer, Longbow, Musket and Spear. Another four were cancelled on 23 December 1945 - Carronade, Culverin, Cutlass and Rifle.
The class were something of an oddity in the post-war Royal Navy, and did not figure in any of the plans for the fleet of the future. They were laid up by 1956, but there emerged a need for fast fleet Aircraft Direction (A/D) ships to accompany the carrier strike force and act as radar pickets, directing fighter cover. The Battle class were being modified for this role, but as a stop-gap, the Weapons were given a more limited conversion. This involved adding a large mainmast amidships for the Radar Type 965 with an AKE-1 "single bedstead" antenna array, with the torpedo tubes replaced by radar offices. The director was replaced with a lighter MRS-8 pattern, possibly to lower topweight associated with the new radar, and all ships had the squids mounted aft and the guns mounted forward. They lacked specialised height finding and aircraft direction radar sets that the Battles possessed, and so were rapidly superseded and returned to reserve.
|HMS Battleaxe||G18, later D118||Yarrow and Company, Scotstoun||22 April 1944||12 June 1945||23 October 1947||Broken up, 1964|
|HMS Broadsword||G31, later D31||Yarrow and Company, Scotstoun||20 July 1944||5 February 1946||4 October 1948||Broken up, 1968|
|HMS Cutlass||G74||Yarrow and Company, Scotstoun||28 September 1944||20 March 1946||not completed||Cancelled 23 December 1945, broken up at Troon, 1946|
|HMS Dagger||G23||Yarrow and Company, Scotstoun||7 March 1945||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 23 December 1945, scrapped on slip|
|HMS Crossbow||G96, later D96||John I. Thornycroft and Company, Woolston||26 August 1944||20 December 1945||4 March 1948||Broken up, 1972|
|HMS Culverin||G28||John I. Thornycroft and Company, Woolston||27 April 1944||March 1946||not completed||Broken up at Grays, 1946|
|HMS Howitzer||G44||Thornycroft, Woolston||26 February 1945||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 15 October 1945, scrapped on slip|
|HMS Longbow||G55||Thornycroft, Woolston||11 April 1945||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 15 October 1945, scrapped on slip|
|HMS Scorpion (ex-Tomahawk, ex-Centaur)||G64, later D64||J. Samuel White, Cowes||16 December 1944||15 August 1946||17 September 1947||Broken up, 1971|
|HMS Sword (ex-Celt)||G85||J. Samuel White, Cowes||17 September 1945||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 15 October 1945, scrapped on slip|
|HMS Musket||G85||J. Samuel White, Cowes||not laid down||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 15 October 1945|
|HMS Lance (ex-Rapier)||none allocated||J. Samuel White, Cowes||not laid down||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 15 October 1945|
|HMS Carronade||G82||Scotts Shipbuilding & Engineering Company, Greenock||26 April 1944||4 April 1946||not completed||Cancelled 23 December 1945, broken up at Troon, 1946|
|HMS Claymore||G34||Scotts, Greenock||not laid down||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 15 October 1945, scrapped on slip|
|HMS Dirk||G02||Scotts, Greenock||not laid down||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 15 October 1945|
|HMS Grenade||G53||Scotts, Greenock||not laid down||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 22 November 1944|
|HMS Halberd||G99||Scotts, Greenock||not laid down||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 22 November 1944|
|HMS Poniard||G06||Scotts, Greenock||not laid down||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 22 November 1944|
|HMS Rifle||G21||William Denny & Brothers, Dumbarton||30 June 1944||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 27 December 1945, scrapped on slip|
|HMS Spear||G30||Denny, Dumbarton||29 September 1944||not launched||not completed||Cancelled 27 December 1945, scrapped on slip|
- Tomahawk was renamed after Admiral of the Fleet, Viscount Cunningham had remarked about his sadness at the loss of a ship of this name after the S-class destroyer, Scorpion, was transferred to the Royal Netherlands Navy. Scorpion had been the name of Cunningham's first command, and when the Admiralty ship names committee discovered a medieval form of ballista with this name, the solution presented itself.
- Brown Nelson to Vanguard 2000 Chatham Publishing p94
- Cocker, Maurice, Destroyers of the Royal Navy, 1893-1981, Ian Allan, ISBN 0-7110-1075-7
- Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) . Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475.
- Marriot, Leo, Royal Navy Destroyers since 1945, Ian Allan, ISBN 0-7110-1817-0
- Destroyers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia, M J Whitley, Arms and Armour Press, 1999, ISBN 1-85409-521-8.
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