Web-oriented architecture

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Web-oriented architecture (WOA) was coined in 2006 by Nick Gall of the Gartner’s group. It is a software architecture style that extends service-oriented architecture (SOA) to web-based applications. WOA was originally created by many web applications and sites, such as social websites and personal websites.

Definitions[edit]

The official Gartner definition of Web-Oriented Architecture:

"WOA is an architectural substyle of service-oriented architecture that integrates systems and users via a web of globally linked hypermedia based on the architecture of the Web. This architecture emphasizes generality of interfaces (User interfaces and APIs) to achieve global network effects through five fundamental generic interface constraints:

  • Identification of resources
  • Manipulation of resources through representations (Web resource)
  • Self-descriptive messages
  • Hypermedia as the engine of application state
  • Application neutrality" [1]

Nick Gall also gives a mathematical formula for defining “WOA = SOA + WWW + REST".[2]

Dion Hinchcliffe claims WOA to be:

“A core set of Web protocols like HTTP and plan XML, the only real difference between traditional SOA and the concept of WOA is that WOA advocates Representational state transfer (REST), an increasingly popular, powerful, and simple method of leveraging Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) as a Web service in its own right”.[3]

WOA versus SOA[edit]

The main difference between SOA and WOA is that WOA supports REST whereas SOA uses SOAP.

  • SOAP uses XML, a messaging format, which includes all headings and security information, and transfers information in a particular structure, but using REST eliminates the problem as it transfers information in URI form.
  • SOA uses WS-Security, whilst WOA uses HTTP Secure (HTTPS), OAuth and Hash-based message authentication code (HMAC-SHA-1).
  • REST allows for two systems to operate and function together efficiently using URIs.[4][5]

OAuth is one of the highest security measures on the internet today, used by large websites, such as Twitter. Identity issues can be an issue for WOA applications.[6] WOA style is used in many cloud based applications. Most WOA designs have included a federated login, which make it easier to confirm the identity of the user and easier for the user to move between programs. [7]

The WOA Stack[edit]

  • Distribution (HTTP, feeds)
  • Composition (Hypermedia, Mashups)
  • Security (OpenID, SSL)
  • Data Portability (XML, RDF)
  • Data Representation (ATOM, JSON)
  • Transfer Methods (REST, HTTP, BitTorrent)[8]

Enterprise[edit]

Enterprise Web Oriented Architecture (EWOA) is a sub-style of Enterprise Service Oriented Architecture (ESOA). EWOA is defined as the sets of web-based architectural elements, environments, principals and processes. There is an expanding set of tools building mashup (web application hybrid) from WOA resources. These tools are beneficial to IT developers to create interoperability and integration.[9]

New applications and websites, such as Google Adsense, Wikipedia and other RESTful services are using WOA, which is gaining attention from the research community and the industry.[10]

Current WOA examples include Google’s OpenSocial and MindTouch.[11]

Mobile API[edit]

Mobile APIs are based on becoming more focused in using WOA technology. Creating these services have become easier using simplified web protocols, e.g. REST and JSON (JavaScript Object Notation).

These protocols are much easier for web developers, as they require less CPU and bandwidth. They are more recognised because of large social platforms, such as Facebook, Amazon and Twitter etc.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nick Gall,WOA: Putting the Web Back in Web Services, Retrieved 28 October 2014
  2. ^ Nick Gall Web-oriented architecture and the rise of pragmatic SOA, Retrieved 28 October 2014
  3. ^ Dion Hinchcliffe, The SOA with reach: Web-Oriented Architecture, 27 October 2014
  4. ^ Verma, Ashish; Bhatnagar, Vikas; Jain, Siddharth (January, 2014). A COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WOA VS. SOA (Report).
  5. ^ Parnami, Pooja; Dave, Ruchi; Verma, Ashish (February, 2013). WOA Based Implementation of SOA (Report). pp. 151-154.
  6. ^ Dion Hinchcliffe (2009). Web-Oriented Architecture (Speech). London QCon. 
  7. ^ Alex Newth, What Is Web Oriented Architecture?
  8. ^ Dion Hinchcliffe (2009). Web-Oriented Architecture (Speech). London QCon. 
  9. ^ Su, Chuan-Jun. Web-Oriented Architecture (WOA) Enabled Customer-Centric Collaborative Commerce Platform (WCCP) (Report). pp. 402-406.
  10. ^ Dong, Jing; Paul, Raymond & Zhang, Liang Jie (2009). "Chapter 12 : Specifying Enterprise Web-Oriented Architecture". High Assurance Services Computing. Springer. ISBN 038787657X. 
  11. ^ Aaron Fulkerson , Web Oriented Architecture, Retrieved 30 October 2014
  12. ^ http://www.convertigo.com/crm/from-soa-to-woa.html From SOA to Mobile APIs with Convertigo Mobilizer MADP 25 October 2014

External links[edit]