William Hurrell Mallock
|William Hurrell Mallock|
Cabinet Card of William Hurrell Mallock, by Elliot & Fry, circa 1880's.
7 February 1849|
Cheriton Bishop, Devon
|Died||2 April 1923
|Alma mater||Balliol College, Oxford|
|Occupation||Novelist, sociologist, lecturer and economist|
|Parents||Rev. William Mallock and Margaret Froude|
|Relatives||William Froude, Richard Hurrell Froude, James Anthony Froude, Mary Margaret Mallock (sister)|
William Hurrell Mallock (7 February 1849 – 2 April 1923) was an English novelist and economics writer.
A nephew of the historian Froude, he was educated privately and then at Balliol College, Oxford. He won the Newdigate prize in 1872 for his poem The Isthmus of Suez and took a second class in the final classical schools in 1874, securing his Bachelor of Arts degree from Oxford University. Mallock never entered a profession, though at one time he considered the diplomatic service. He attracted considerable attention by his satirical novel The New Republic (1877), conceived while he was a student at Oxford, in which he introduced characters easily recognized as such prominent individuals as Benjamin Jowett, Matthew Arnold, Violet Fane, Thomas Carlyle, and Thomas Henry Huxley. Although the book was not well received by critics at first, it did cause instant scandal, particularly concerning the portrait of literary scholar Walter Pater:
His [Pater's] first main work, Studies in the History of the Renaissance was published in 1873. Over the next three or four years it became the focus of considerable hostility towards Pater, principally reviewers objected to its amoral hedonism. Moreover, Pater was the subject of a cruel satire in W. H. Mallock's The New Republic which was published in Belgravia in 1876-7 and in book form in 1877. He appeared there as 'Mr. Rose'– an effete, impotent, sensualist with a perchant for erotic literature and beautiful young men. In the second edition of the Renaissance the 'Conclusion' was removed, partly in response to the public ridicule, but mainly because of pressure brought to bear on Pater within Oxford by figures such as Benjamin Jowett. In particular, the discovery of his 'relationship' with William Money Hardinge, a Balliol undergraduate, threatened Pater with a sexual scandal.
Mallock's book appeared during the competition for the Oxford Professorship of Poetry and played a role in convincing Pater to remove himself from consideration. A few months later Pater published what may have been a subtle riposte: "A Study of Dionysus: The Spiritual Form of Fire and Dew."
His keen logic and gift for acute exposition and criticism were displayed in later years both in fiction and in controversial works. In a series of books dealing with religious questions he insisted on dogma as the basis of religion and on the impossibility of founding religion on purely scientific data. In Is Life Worth Living? (1879) and The New Paul and Virginia (1878) he attacked positivist theories and defended the Roman Catholic Church. In a volume on the intellectual position of the Church of England, Doctrine and Doctrinal Disruption (1900), he advocated the necessity of a strictly defined creed. Later volumes on similar topics were Religion as a Credible Doctrine (1903) and The Reconstruction of Belief (1905). He also authored articles, being a frequent contributor to many newspapers and magazines, including The Forum, National Review, Public Opinion, Contemporary Review, and Harper’s Weekly. One in particular, directed against Thomas Huxley's agnosticism, appeared in the April 1889 issue of The Fortnightly Review, being Mallock's response to a controversy between, among others, Huxley and the Bishop of Peterborough.
He published several works on economics, directed against radical and socialist theories: Social Equality (1882), Property and Progress (1884), Labor and the Popular Welfare (1893), Classes and Masses (1896), Aristocracy and Evolution (1898), and A Critical Examination of Socialism (1908) – and later visited the United States in order to deliver a series of lectures on the subject:
The Civic Federation of New York, an influential body which aims, in various ways, at harmonising apparently divergent industrial interests in America, having decided on supplementing its other activities by a campaign of political and economic education, invited me, at the beginning of the year 1907, to initiate a scientific discussion of socialism in a series of lectures or speeches, to be delivered under the auspices of certain of the great Universities in the United States. This invitation I accepted, but, the project being a new one, some difficulty arose as to the manner in which it might best be carried out – whether the speeches or lectures should in each case be new, dealing with some fresh aspect of the subject, or whether they should be arranged in a single series to be repeated without substantial alteration in each of the cities visited by me. The latter plan was ultimately adopted, as tending to render the discussion of the subject more generally comprehensible to each local audience. A series of five lectures, substantially the same, was accordingly delivered by me in New York, Cambridge, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
Among his anti-socialist works should be classed his novel, The Old Order Changes (1886). His other novels include A Romance of the Nineteenth Century (1881), A Human Document (1892), The Heart of Life (1895), and The Veil of the Temple (1904).
How is one to sum up the work of W. H. Mallock, which fills twenty-seven volumes, exclusive of ephemerae? Mallock is remembered chiefly for one book, The New Republic, and that his first, composed while he still was at Oxford – "the most brilliant novel ever written by an undergraduate," says Professor Tillotson, justly. (It is also the most brilliant accomplishment in its genre, after Thomas Love Peacock; and perhaps it is equal to Peacock at his best.) But other books of Mallock's are worth looking into still — his theological and philosophical studies, his didactic novels, his zealous volumes of political expostulation and social statistics, even his books of verse.
"He had astonishing acuteness, great argumentative power, wide and accurate knowledge, excellent style," Saintsbury says of Mallock. "He might have seemed — he did seem, I believe, to some – to have in him the making of an Aristophanes or a Swift of not so much lessened degree... And yet after the chiefly scandalous success of The New Republic he never 'came off.' To attribute this to the principles he advocated is to nail on those who dislike those principles their own favourite gibe of 'the stupid party.' We know brains when we see them, even if they belong to the enemy. Exactly what was the flaw, the rot, the 'dram of eale,' I do not know – it lay in faults of taste and temper, perhaps." In the past two or three years, interest in Mallock has revived somewhat, probably stimulated by that conservative revival for which Mallock hoped, and the lines of which he predicted. Is Life Worth Living?, Social Equality, and The Limits of Pure Democracy, together with Mallock's charming autobiography, are especially deserving of attention from anyone interested in the conservative mind. Mallock died in 1923, half forgotten even then; but he has had no equal among English conservative thinkers since. He spent his life in a struggle against moral and political radicalism: for bulk and thoroughness, quite aside from Mallock's gifts of wit and style, his work is unexcelled among the body of conservative writings in any country.
By inheritance a country gentleman of ancient family, by inclination a poet, Mallock turned himself into a pamphleteer and a statistician on the Benthamite pattern, all for the sake of the old English life that he describes lovingly in his Memoirs of Life and Literature – the splendid houses, the good talk, the wines and dinners, the tranquillity of immemorial ways. This may be the conservatism of enjoyment, but Mallock defended it by the conservatism of the intellect. For its sake he spent his life among blue-books and reports of the income-tax commissioners; he accomplished unassisted what the research staff of the Conservative Political Centre now carries on as a body. "Throughout almost all his books is to be noticed the aspiration after a Truth which will give the soul something more than 'a dusty answer'; it is everywhere evident," says Sir John Squire. In the search for this truth, he assailed some of the most formidable personages of his day – Huxley, Spencer, Jowett, Kidd, Webb, Shaw. And none of these writers, not even Bernard Shaw, came off well from a bout with Mallock.
In boyhood, Mallock "unconsciously assumed in effect, if not in so many words, that any revolt or protest against the established order was indeed an impertinence, but was otherwise of no great importance." His first aspiration as a conservative was the restoration of classical taste in poetry. But as he grew, he came to realize "that the whole order of things—literary, religious, and social – which theclassical poetry assumed, and which I had previously taken as impregnable, was being assailed by forces which it was impossible any longer to ignore." He turned to the defense of orthodox religion against the positivists and other worshippers of skeptical science.
He published a volume of Poems in 1880. His 1883 book Lucretius included some verse translations from the Roman poet, which he followed with Lucretius on Life and Death in 1900, a book of verse paraphrases in a style modeled after the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam by Edward FitzGerald. (A second edition was issued in 1910.)
Ironically, this last work came to be highly regarded by freethinkers and other religious skeptics. Corliss Lamont includes portions of the third canto in his A Humanist Funeral Service. Mallock himself, in his introduction, seems to be offering it, somewhat condescendingly, for the use of such non-Christians when he writes:
Those, however, who... are adherents of the principles which [Lucretius] shares with the latest scientists of to-day, can hardly find the only hope which is open to them expressed by any writer with a loftier and more poignant dignity than that with which they will find it expressed by the Roman disciple of Epicurus.
The popular English novelist Ouida (Maria Louise Ramé) dedicated her book of essays Views and Opinions (1895) to Mallock — "To W. H. Mallock. As a slight token of personal regard and intellectual admiration."
- Letters, Remains, and Memoirs of Edward Adolphus Seymour, Twelfth Duke of Somerset, with Helen Guendolen Seymour Ramsden, Richard Bentley & Son, 1893.
- "Lucretius on Life and Death," The Anglo-Saxon Review, Vol. III, December 1899.
- "The Bridal Hymns of Catullus," The Anglo-Saxon Review, Vol. VII, December 1900.
- The Isthmus of Suez, T. Shrimpton & Son. Oxford, 1871.
- Russell, Frances Theresa. Satire in the Victorian Novel, The Macmillan Company, 1920.
- Sewall, John S. "The New Era of Intolerance," New Englander and Yale Review, Volume XXXVIII, Issue 150, May 1879.
- Daiches, David. "Malicious Panorama of Late Victorian Thought," New Republic, Vol. 124 Issue 9, February 1951.
- Cumming, Mark (ed.). "Mallock, William Hurrell," The Carlyle Encyclopedia, Rosemont Publishing & Printing Corp., 2004.
- Patrick, J. Max. “The Portrait of Huxley in Mallock’s ‘New Republic’,” Nineteenth Century Fiction, Vol. XI, No. 1, 1956.
- Margolis, John D. "W. H. Mallock's The New Republic: A Study in Late Victorian Satire," English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, Volume 10, Number 1, 1967.
- Guy, Josephine M. The Victorian Age: An Anthology of Sources and Documents, Routledge, 1998.
- Greenslet, Ferris. "Oxford." In Walter Pater, Chap. II, McClure, Phillips & Co., 1905.
- Wright, Thomas. "The New Republic." In The Life of Walter Pater, Vol. II, Chap. XXXI, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1907.
- Thomas, Edward. "Middle Life." In Walter Pater: A Critical Study, Martin Secker, 1913.
- Pater, Walter Horatio. "A Study of Dionysus: The Spiritual Form of Fire and Dew." In Greek Studies; a Series of Essays, Macmillan & Co., 1920.
- Jacobi, Mary Putnam. The Value of Life; a Reply to Mr. Mallock's Essay "Is Life Worth Living"? G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1879.
- Lucas, John. “Tilting at the Moderns – W. H. Mallock’s Criticism of the Positivist Spirit.” In Renaissance and Modern Studies, Vol. X, No. 1, 1966.
- Mallock, William H. The Intellectual Future of Catholicism, s.n., 1907.
- Reynolds, Henry Robert. "Mr. Mallock's Claim on Behalf of the Church of Rome," The Contemporary Review, Vol. XXXII, April 1878.
- Conder, Eustace R. "The Faith of the Future," The Contemporary Review, Vol. XXXII, April 1878.
- Onahan, Mary Josephine. "Why Not the Pope, Mr. Mallock?," The Globe, Vol. IV, No. 13, August/November, 1893.
- "Catholicism and Mr. W. H. Mallock", The Dublin Review, Vol. XXXII, No. 2, April, 1879.
- Mallock, William H. "'Cowardly Agnosticism,' A Word With Prof. Huxley," [reprinted in Popular Science Monthly, Volume 35, June 1889].
- Christianity and Agnosticism: A Controversy, Humboldt Publishing Co., 1889.
- Ford, D. J. “W. H. Mallock and Socialism in England, 1880-1918.” In Kenneth D. Brown, (ed.), Essays in Anti-Labor History: Responses to the Rise of Labor in Britain, Archon Books, 1974.
- "We like to think of corruption in simple and direct terms, as when a political leader, like King George III bribes members of Parliament to support his schemes or, conversely, when members of an Italian cabinet demanded bribes from capitalists and executives doing business with the Italian government. This is, more or less, what Sir Henry Sumner Maine (in his book Popular Government) called "the old corruption." What Maine, writing in the 1880's, foresaw was the development of a new style of corruption in which politicians taxed--or rather robbed--the productive and the comparatively affluent in order to bribe the masses for their support. Anticipating the antics of Lloyd George and Harold Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson, and Barack Obama, Maine realized from the beginning that socialism was not so much a means of helping the poor as it was a technique for gaining, increasing, and centralizing political power. Maine's younger contemporary, W.H. Mallock, learned a parallel lesson by ignoring Marx's rhetoric and paying close attention to the tyrannical manner in which Marx and his flunkeys controlled their political network. Before the Russian Revolution had begun, Mallock accurately predicted its course." Fleming, Thomas. "State Failure, Human Success," Mail Online, May 28, 2012.
- Scudder, M. E. “Mr. Mallock on Socialism,” The Independent, Vol. LXII, January/June, 1907.
- “Socialistic Fallacies,” The Argus, June 29, 1907.
- "Socialism Impractical, W.H. Mallock Declares," The New York Times, February 10, 1907.
- “Mallock Talks on Socialism,” The New York Times, February 13, 1907.
- Wilshire, Gaylord. “What Socialism Gives to Genius,” The New York Times, February 16, 1907.
- Wilshire, Gaylord. "The Individual and Society," The New York Times, February 20, 1907.
- “Socialism Based on a Fallacy,” The New York Times, February 20, 1907.
- Mallock, William H. Socialism, The National Civic Federation, 1907.
- Mallock, William H. A Critical Examination of Socialism, Preface, John Murray, 1908, p. vii.
- Cheek, Lee. "W. H. Mallock Revisited," The Imaginative Conservative, January 3, 2012.
- Tillotson, Geoffrey, Criticism and the Nineteenth Century, p. 124, Athlone Press, 1951.
- Sainstsbury, George. A Second Scrap Book, pp. 178-180, Macmillan & Co., 1923.
- Fuchs, James. ed. The Socialism of Shaw, Vanguard Press, 1926.
- Kirk, Russell. The Conservative Mind, pp. 450-452, Henry Regnery Company, 1960.
- A Humument: A Treated Victorian Novel, London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.
- Traister, Daniel. "W.H. Mallock and A Human Document," at Humument.com.
- Ouida, Views and Opinions, Methuen & Co., 1895.
- "A Criticism of “The New Paul and Virginia,” The Popular Science Monthly, Supplement, 1878.
- "Is Life Worth Living?, by William Hurrell Mallock," The Century Magazine, September 1879.
- French edition La Vie Vaut-elle la Peine de Vivre? Étude sur la Morale Positiviste, Pedone-Lauriel, 1904.
- “A Romance of the Nineteenth Century,” The Literary News, Vol. II, 1881.
- "Social Equality, by William Hurrell Mallock," The Century Magazine, December 1882.
- "Social Equality," Library of the World's Best Literature, Vol. XXX, 1898.
- Hawthorne, Julian. “Mr. Mallock’s Missing Science.” In Confessions and Criticism, Chap. VII, Ticknor & Company. Boston, 1887.
- French edition L'Égalité Sociale: Étude sur une Science qui nous Manque, Firmin-Didot, 1883.
- Mann, Henry. “A Reply to Mr. Mallock,” Features of Society in Old and New England, Sydney S. Rider. Providence, 1885.
- MacCarthy, John. "Mr. Mallock on the Labor and Social Movements," The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. XII, January/October 1887.
- Price, L. L. “Labor and Popular Welfare,” The International Journal of Ethics, Vol. IV, No. 4, July, 1894.
- Breckenridge, Roeliff M. “Labor and the Popular Welfare,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. IX, No. 3, September, 1894.
- Cummings, John. "Labor and the Popular Welfare by W.H. Mallock," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 2, No. 2, March 1894.
- "Rousseaunism Revisited," The Quarterly Review, Vol. CLXXIX, July/October 1894.
- Macdonell, Annie. "Mr. Mallock's New Novel," The Bookman, August 1895.
- “The Heart of Life,” The Literary News, Vol. XVI, No. 9, September, 1895.
- Hull, E. R. “Mr. Mallock as a Defender of Natural Religion,” The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. XXI, January/October, 1896.
- Ball, Sidney. “Classes and Masses,” The International Journal of Ethics, Vol. VII, No. 3, April, 1897.
- Virtue, G. O. "Classes and Masses or Wealth, Hopes and Welfare in the United Kingdom: A Handbook of Social Facts for Practical Thinkers and Speakers by W. H. Mallock," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 4, No. 4, Sep., 1896.
- "The Classes and the Masses," The Bookman, June 1898.
- "Aristocracy and Evolution, by William Hurrell Mallock," The Outlook, October 15, 1898.
- Crook, J. W. “Aristocracy and Evolution,” Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, Vol. XIII, January, 1899.
- Veblen, Thorstein B. "Aristocracy and Evolution: A Study of the Rights, the Origin, and the Social Functions of the Wealthier Classes by W. H. Mallock," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 6, No. 3, June 1898.
- "Tristram Lacy, or The Individualist, by W.H. Mallock," The Bookman, September 1899.
- Wyman, Rev. Henry H. "Doctrine Versus Doctrinal Disruption," The Catholic World, Vol, LXXV, April/September 1902.
- O’Neill, Rev. John. “Religion as a Credible Doctrine,” Part II, The Irish Ecclesiastical Record, Vol. XIX, January/June, 1906.
- Wenley, R. M. “Religion as a Credible Doctrine,” The American Journal of Theology, Vol. VIII, N°. 2, April, 1904.
- Brosnahan, Timothy. “Mr. W. H. Mallock’s Entanglement,” The Messenger, Vol. XXXIX, No. 3, March 1903.
- Fox, James J. "Mr. William H. Mallock’s Defense of Religion,” The Catholic World, Vol. LXXVII, April/September, 1903.
- Fitzsimmons, Rev. S. “Mr. Mallock on Science and Religion,” The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. XXIX, January/October 1904.
- Driscoll, John T. "Philosophy and Science at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century," The North American Review, March 1903.
- "Science Versus Religion," The Literary Digest, June 11, 1904.
- Barry, William. "Mr. Mallock's Apology for Religion," The Bookman, July 1904.
- Driscoll, John D. "Mr. Mallock and the Philosophy of Theism," The Catholic World, Vol. LXXX, No. 475, October 1904.
- Driscoll, John T. "Mr. Mallock and the Science-Philosophy," The Catholic World, Vol. LXXXII, No. 492, March 1906.
- Wyman, Rev. Henry H. "Mr. Mallock's Psychology: A Scientific Argument," The American Ecclesiastical Review, Vol. XXXIV, No. 4, April 1906.
- Abbott, Lyman. "Socialism," The Outlook, March 7, 1908.
- Hoxie, R. F. "A Critical Examination of Socialism by W. H. Mallock," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 16, No. 8, Oct., 1908.
- Chamberlain, John. “A Reviewers Notebook – A Critical Examination of Socialism,” The Freeman, Vol. XXXIX, No. 10, 1989.
- "Socialism," The Dublin Review, Vol. CXLII, No. 285, April 1908.
- Young, Allyn A. “Mr. Mallock as Statistician and British Income Statistics,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. XXV, No. 2, February, 1901.
- Le Rossignol, J. E. “The Nation as a Business Firm,” The American Economic Review, Vol. I, No. 2, June, 1911.
- Cross, Ira B. “The Nation as a Business Firm,” Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, Vol. XXXIX, January, 1912.
- Wicker, George Ray. “The Nation as a Business Firm,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, September, 1911.
- “The Limits of Pure Democracy,” The International Journal of Ethics, Vol. XXVIII, July , 1918.
- Durant, Will. "Stimulating Because Untrue,” The Dial, Vol. LXV, June/December, 1918.
- Yarros, Victor S. "Recent Assaults on Democracy." In Our Revolution; Essays in Interpretation, Richard G. Badger, 1920.
- West, Henry Litchfield. "A Lift of Enjoyment and Endeavor," The Bookman, November 1920.
- “Memoirs of Life and Literature,” The North American Review, Vol. CCXII, No. 780, November, 1920.
- More, Paul Elmer. "A Tory Unabashed,” The Weekly Review, Vol. III, No. 76, October, 1920.
- "A Crusader in Behalf of Conservatism," Current Opinion, Vol. LXIX, 1920.
- Bevington, Louisa Sarah. "Modern Atheism and Mr. Mallock," The Nineteenth Century, Vol. VI, July/December, 1879.
- Bevington, Louisa Sarah. "Modern Atheism and Mr. Mallock, Conclusion", The Nineteenth Century, Vol. VI, July/December, 1879.
- Rep. in The New York Times, April 21, 1878.
- Rep. in The Popular Science Monthly, Supplement, Vol. XIII-XVIII, 1878.
- Rep. in The Eclectic Magazine, Vol. XXX, July/December 1879.
- Rep. in The Library Magazine, Vol. II, 1880.
- Rep. in The Library Magazine, Vol. VI, 1880.
- Romanes, George J. "What is the Object of Life?," The Forum, Vol. III, August 1887.
- Le Sueur, William Dawson. “Mr. Mallock on Optimism,” Popular Science Monthly, Vol. XXXV, August 1889.
- Buckley, Catherine. "Morris and his Critics,” Journal of William Morris Society, Vol. III, No. 4, 1978.
- Rep. in The Eclectic Magazine, Vol. LVI, July/December 1892.
- Moffat, Robert Scott. “Mr. W. H. Mallock on the Living Wage,” The Free Review, Vol. II, April/September, 1894.
- Spencer, Herbert. "What is Social Evolution?," The Nineteenth Century, Vol. XLIV, July/December, 1898.
- Fox, James J. "Mr. W. H. Mallock on 'The Conflict of Science and Religion'," The Catholic World, Vol. LXXIV, October 1901/March 1902.
- Maher, Michael. "Reply to Mr. W. H. Mallock’s Criticism,” Psychology, Empirical and Rational, Supplement C, Longmans, Green & Co. London, 1902.
- Candler, H. "Mrs. Gallup’s Cypher Story – A Reply to Mr. Mallock," The Nineteenth Century and After, Vol. LI, January/June, 1902.
- Myers, F. W. H. Human Personality, Vol. II, Longmans, Green & Co., 1903.
- Greg, Walter W. “Facts and Fancies in Baconian Theory,” The Library, New Series, Vol. IV, 1903.
- Withworth, W. Allen "Free Thought in the Church England, a Reply," The Nineteenth Century and After, July/December, 1904.
- Smith, H. Maynard. "Mr. Mallock and the Bishop of Worcester," The Nineteenth Century and After, July/December, 1904.
- Christison, J. Sanderson. "Science and Immortality," The North American Review, June 1905.
- Sullivan, William L. "Mr. Mallock on the Naturalness of Christianity," The Catholic World, Vol. LXXXII, March/October 1906.
- Wilson, A. J. “Mr. W. H. Mallock Statistical Abstract,” The Investors’ Review, Vol. XVII, No. 418, January 6, 1906.
- Rep. in The Living Age, Vol. XXXII, July/September 1906.
- Sharp, Clifford. "A Challenge to Mr. Mallock,” The New Age, Vol. II, No. 23, P. 449, April 4, 1908.
- Smith, Robert H. "Distribution of Income in Great Britain and Incidence of Income Tax,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. XXV, 1911.
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