Eternal life (Christianity)
In Christianity, the term eternal life traditionally refers to continued life after death, as outlined in Christian eschatology. The Apostles' Creed testifies: "I believe... the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting." In this view, eternal life commences after the second coming of Jesus and the resurrection of the dead, although in the New Testament's Johannine literature there are references to eternal life commencing in the earthly life of the believer, possibly indicating an inaugurated eschatology.
According to mainstream Christian theology, after death but before the Second Coming, the saved live with God in an intermediate state, but after the Second Coming, experience the physical resurrection of the dead and the physical recreation of a New Earth. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states, "By death the soul is separated from the body, but in the resurrection God will give incorruptible life to our body, transformed by reunion with our soul. Just as Christ is risen and lives for ever, so all of us will rise at the last day."  N.T. Wright argues that "God's plan is not to abandon this world... Rather, he intends to remake it. And when he does, he will raise all people to new bodily life to live in it. That is the promise of the Christian gospel" 
In the Synoptic Gospels and the Pauline Letters, eternal life is generally regarded as a future experience, but the Gospel of John differs from them in its emphasis on eternal life as a "present possession". Raymond E. Brown points out that in the synoptic gospels eternal life is something received at the final judgment, or a future age (Mark 10:30, Matthew 18:8-9) but the Gospel of John positions eternal life as a present possibility, as in John 5:24.
Thus, unlike the synoptics, in the Gospel of John eternal life is not only futuristic, but also pertains to the present. In John, those who accept Christ can possess life "here and now" as well as in eternity, for they have "passed from death to life", as in John 5:24: "He who hears my word, and believes him that sent me, has eternal life, and comes not into judgment, but has passed out of death into life." In John, the purpose for the incarnation, death, resurrection and glorification of The Word was to provide eternal life to humanity.
In the New Testament
Scholars such as John H. Leith assert that eternal life is never described in detail in the New Testament, although assurances are provided that the faithful will receive it. Other scholars such as D. A. Carson suggest that eternal life is explicitly defined in John 17:3, where Jesus says in his High Priestly Prayer, "Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent." Carson says of this verse that "Eternal life turns on nothing more and nothing less than knowledge of the true God" and that it is "not so much everlasting life as personal knowledge of the Everlasting One." The Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible on the other hand, contends that "the nature of eternal life is only sketched in its essential elements in the New Testament".
While the Synoptic Gospels are seen as focusing on the proclamation of the Kingdom of God, some scholars see eternal life as the central theme of Jesus' preaching in the Gospel of John, where receiving eternal life is seen to be synonymous with entering the Kingdom. In Christian teachings, eternal life is not an inherent part of human existence, and is a unique gift from God, based on the model of the Resurrection of Jesus, viewed as a unique event through which death was conquered "once for all", permitting Christians to experience eternal life. This eternal life is provided to believers, generally assumed to be at the resurrection of the dead.
In New Testament theology, in addition to "life" (zoe, i.e. ζωὴ in Greek), there is also a promised spiritual life sometimes described by the adjective eternal (aionios i.e. αἰώνιος in Greek) but other times simply referred to as "life". In the New Testament, life is not an inherent part of human existence, but is a unique gift from God, based on the model of the Resurrection of Jesus. In Christian teachings, the Resurrection of Jesus is a unique event through which death was conquered "once for all". As a consequence of the death and Resurrection of Jesus, Christians can experience eternal life both at the present as well as the future. In both John and Paul the possibility of attaining eternal life and avoiding the wrath of God is dependent on believing in Jesus, the Son of God. For John abiding in Christ involves love for one another, as in John 15:9-17, and John 5:24. The existence of divine love in believers, then facilitates the influence of the gospel on the world, and lead to widespread salvation. 1 John 3:14 then manifests "the already but not yet" acquisition of eternal life by referring to the acquisition of eternal life as a once for all (ephapax) event, and the role of love in attaining it: "We know that we have passed from death to life, because we love each other. Anyone who does not love remains in death", somewhat reminiscent of the words of Jesus in John 5:24.
There are parallels in how the synoptics refer to "being saved" and John refers to eternal life, as in the table below:
|Matthew 16:25||Mark 8:35||Luke 9:24||John 12:25|
|... whosoever shall lose his life for my sake shall find it.||... whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's shall save it.||... whosoever shall lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it.||... he that hates his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal.|
The Gospel of Matthew includes references to eternal life, in 19:16, 19:29 and 25:46. The reference in Matthew 19:16 is within the parable of Jesus and the rich young man which also appears in Mark 10:17–31 and Luke 18:18–30. This parable relates the term "eternal life" to entry into the Kingdom of God. The parable starts by a question to Jesus from the young man: "what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?" and Jesus advises him to keep the commandments, and then refers to entry into the "Kingdom of God" in the same context.
|“||For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have eternal life.—John 3:16||”|
The Johannine concept of eternal life differs from the synoptic view. Johannine writings specifically present the view of eternal life as not simply futuristic, but also pertaining to the present, so those who hear the words of Jesus and trust in Yaweh can possess life "here and now" as well as in eternity, for they have "passed from death to life", as in John 5:24. Overall, the New Testament balances the present and future with respect to eternal life: the believer has passed from death to eternal life, but this remains to be totally realized in the future.
There are about 37 uses of the word life in the Gospel of John of which about half refer to eternal life. There are six appearances in 1 John. The concept so permeates Johannine writings that in many cases one may just read life as eternal life.
D. A. Carson sees John 5:24 as giving the "strongest affirmation of inaugurated eschatology in the Fourth Gospel": it is not necessary for the believer to "wait until the last day to experience something of resurrection life." George Eldon Ladd points out that, like the Kingdom of God, eternal life is "not only an eschatological gift belonging to the Age to Come; it is also a gift to be received in the old aeon". In this context, the gift of eternal life in the old aeon in which sin and death are still present is contrasted with eternal life in the new aeon of life and righteousness, the World to Come to which the faithful will belong.
However, although as in John 3:16 God has provided the gift of eternal life to believers, the possibility of perishing (απόληται) remains if one rejects Jesus. According to John 3:36, "He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life; but he that obeyeth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him."
Towards the end of the Gospel of John (20:31), the purpose of writing the Fourth Gospel is stated as: "so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name". This is often correlated to 1 John 5:13: "These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, so that you may know that you have eternal life."
John's Gospel positions eternal life around the person of Jesus, the Christ. In the Johannine view Christ can reveal life to humans because he is life himself. 1 John 1:2: "proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and was manifested to us" is compared to John 1:1: "and the Word was with God", referring to the pre-existence of Christ.
The term is used in the Gospel of John in the context of the Water of Life and John 4:14 states: "the water that I shall give him shall become in him a well of water springing up unto eternal life."
In John 6:51 Jesus states that: "he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day." This has been transposed, not only into a relationship with Jesus in common with Christian Theology but also into the Eucharist as an element of obtaining eternal life. The Catechism of the Catholic Church (item 1212) teaches that Christians are born through the sacrament of Baptism and receive the "food of eternal life" in the Eucharist.
In John 10:27–28 Jesus states that: "My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: and I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish." This refers to the personal, heart to heart relationship the Christian is expected to have with Jesus.
Another use is in John 17:3: "And this is life eternal, that they should know thee the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, Jesus Christ", this usage relating to the "theme of life" in the Book of Revelation.
|“||Paul, a servant of God ... in hope of eternal life, which God, who cannot lie, promised before times eternal—Titus 1:1–2||”|
In the Pauline epistles (e.g. Romans 3:25: "unto eternal life through Jesus Christ"), eternal life becomes possible in the person of Christ, where by the grace of God and through faith in Christ humans can receive the gift of eternal life. For Paul (as in Galatians 6:8) future eternal life arrives as a result of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit during the present life. Paul views sin as an obstacle to attaining eternal life, as in Romans 6:23. For Paul eternal life is a future possession and "the eschatological goal towards which believers strive." Paul emphasizes that eternal life is not merely something to be earned, but a gift from God, as in Romans 6:23: "wages of sin is death; but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord." Romans 6:23 thus also counter-positions sin and eternal life: while sin results in death, those who are "in Christ" will reap eternal life.
Paul also discusses the relationship of eternal life to the Holy Spirit, stating that to be with the Spirit and to think with the Spirit leads to eternal life, e.g. Galatians 6:8: :"he who sows to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap eternal life." For Paul future eternal life arrives as a result of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit during the present life, and the inter-related statements about the present life, the Spirit and future life form a key element of the teachings on the topic in Galatians.
1 Timothy 1:16 characterizes Christians by reference to eternal life and calls the followers of Jesus: "an ensample of them that should thereafter believe on him unto eternal life." and 6:12 advises them to "fight the good fight of the faith, lay hold on the life eternal".
- The Bible Knowledge Word Study by Darrell Bock 2006 ISBN 0-7814-3445-9 page 162
- Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 2001 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 Entry for "eternal life", pages 264–265 
- Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 2001 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 513 
- Wright, N.T. (2006). Simply Christian. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. p. 219. ISBN 0060507152. .
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E-J by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1982 ISBN 0-8028-3782-4 page 
- Images of Salvation in the New Testament by Brenda B. Colijn 2010 ISBN 0-8308-3872-4 pages 87-90 
- The Westminster theological wordbook of the Bible by Donald E. Gowan 2003 ISBN 0-664-22394-X pages 115-116 
- Basic Christian doctrine by John H. Leith 1993 ISBN 0-664-25192-7 page 296 
- Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible 2000 ISBN 90-5356-503-5 page 430
- D. A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Apollos, 1991), p. 556.
- A theology of the New Testament by George Eldon Ladd 1993 ISBN 0-8028-0680-5 pages 290–293
- 1, 2, and 3 John by John Painter, Daniel J. Harrington 2002 ISBN 0-8146-5812-1 pages 195–196 
- A theology of the New Testament by George Eldon Ladd 1993 ISBN 0-8028-0680-5 page 70
- The Westminster theological wordbook of the Bible by Donald E. Gowan 2003 ISBN 0-664-22394-X pages 296–298 
- 1-3 John by Robert W. Yarbrough 2008 ISBN 0801026873 page 200
- Three views on the origins of the Synoptic Gospels by Robert L. Thomas 2002 ISBN 0-8254-3838-1 pages 33–34 
- Matthew by David L. Turner 2008 ISBN 0-8010-2684-9 page 469
- Matthew by David L. Turner 2008 ISBN 0-8010-2684-9 page 473
- Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible summarizes this as follows: "The NT searches for a balance on eternal life between present and future - the believer has passed in Christ from death to eternal life, but this remains to be fully realized in God's future, specially in the Resurrection and new creation at the eschaton".
- Note: Different authors provide slightly different counts for the use of the term life in John, e.g. 37 in the The Westminster theological wordbook of the Bible vs 36 in Painter and Harrington's book
- D. A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Apollos, 1991), p. 256.
- A theology of the New Testament by George Eldon Ladd 1993 ISBN 0-8028-0680-5 page 528 
- The international standard Bible encyclopedia by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1995 ISBN 0-8028-3784-0 page 525 
- 1, 2, and 3 John by John Painter, Daniel J. Harrington 2002 ISBN 0-8146-5812-1 pages 69–72 
- Reading John with St. Thomas Aquinas edited by Michael Dauphinais 2005 ISBN 0-8132-1405-X page 159 
- Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 0-8308-2699-8 page 312
- New Testament Theology by Leon Morris 1990 ISBN 0-310-45571-5 pages 267–269 
- Catechism item 1212
- You have words of eternal life by Hans Urs von Balthasar 1991 ISBN 0-89870-308-5 page 116
- Revelation: The Triumph of Christ by John R. W. Stott, Sandy Larsen, Dale Larsen 2008 ISBN 0-8308-2023-X page 53
- The Theology of Paul the Apostle by James D. G. Dunn 2006 ISBN 0-8028-4423-5 page 479 
- The spirit and creation in Paul by John W. Yates 2008 ISBN 3-16-149817-8 page 121 
- Paul's Letter to the Romans: A Commentary by Arland J. Hultgren 2011 ISBN 0-8028-2609-1 page 264