Fennel

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For giant fennel, see Ferula communis. For sea fennel, see Crithmum. Not to be confused with Nigella sativa, also called fennel flower.
Fennel
Foeniculum vulgare
Foeniculum July 2011-1a.jpg
Fennel in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
Genus: Foeniculum
Mill.
Species: F. vulgare
Binomial name
Foeniculum vulgare
Mill.

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the celery family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae. It is the sole species in the genus Foeniculum. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks.

It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.

Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the mouse moth and the anise swallowtail.

Etymology and names[edit]

The word "fennel" developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. This came from the Old English fenol or finol, which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum, the diminutive of fenum or faenum, meaning "hay". The Latin word for the plant was ferula, which is now used as the genus name of a related plant.

Cultural references[edit]

Fennel, from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887)

As Old English finule, fennel is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century.[1]

In Greek mythology, Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the demigods.[2] Also, it was from the giant fennel, Ferula communis, that the Bacchanalian wands of the demigod Dionysus and his followers were said to have come.[citation needed]

The Greek name for fennel is marathon (μάραθον) or marathos (μάραθος),[3] and the place of the famous battle of Marathon (whence Marathon, the subsequent sports event), literally means a plain with fennels.[4] The word is first attested in Mycenaean Linear B form as 𐀔𐀨𐀶𐀺, ma-ra-tu-wo.[5]

The name Funchal, was applied by the first settlers that landed on its shores due to the abundance of wild fennel where, as tradition goes, the primitive burg was built. From the Portuguese word "funcho" (fennel) and the suffix "-al", to denote "a plantation of fennel":

"...Funchal, to whom the captain gave this name, because it was founded in a beautiful forested valley, full of fennel up to the sea..."

Appearance[edit]

Fennel flowerheads
Fennel seeds

Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a perennial herb. It is erect, glaucous green, and grows to heights of up to 2.5 m, with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long; they are finely dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike), about 0.5 mm wide. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill, but thinner.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide, each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long, half as wide or less, and grooved.[6]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Fennel, bulb, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 130 kJ (31 kcal)
7.29 g
Dietary fiber 3.1 g
0.20 g
1.24 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(1%)
0.01 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.032 mg
Niacin (B3)
(4%)
0.64 mg
(5%)
0.232 mg
Vitamin B6
(4%)
0.047 mg
Folate (B9)
(7%)
27 μg
Vitamin C
(14%)
12 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(5%)
49 mg
Iron
(6%)
0.73 mg
Magnesium
(5%)
17 mg
Manganese
(9%)
0.191 mg
Phosphorus
(7%)
50 mg
Potassium
(9%)
414 mg
Zinc
(2%)
0.20 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Fennel is widely cultivated, both in its native range and elsewhere, for its edible, strongly flavoured leaves and fruits. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole, an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise, and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs, though usually not as strong.[7]

Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group; syn. F. vulgare var. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. It is of cultivated origin,[8] and has a mild anise-like flavour, but is sweeter and more aromatic. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.[9] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable, both raw and cooked. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel, which is also known by several other names, notably the Italian name finocchio. In North American supermarkets, it is often mislabelled as "anise".[10][11]

Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum' or 'Nigra', "bronze-leaved" fennel, is widely available as a decorative garden plant.[12]

Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides, in pastures, and in other open sites in many regions, including northern Europe, the United States, southern Canada, and much of Asia and Australia. It propagates well by seed, and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States.[13] In western North America, fennel can be found from the coastal and inland wildland-urban interface east into hill and mountain areas, excluding desert habitats.

Florence fennel bulbs

Florence fennel is one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe, an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became, by the late 19th century, a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.

Culinary uses[edit]

Sugar-coated and uncoated fennel seeds are used in India and Pakistan in mukhwas, an after-meal snack and breath freshener.

The bulb, foliage, and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. The small flowers of wild fennel (mistakenly known in America as fennel "pollen" [14]) are the most potent form of fennel, but also the most expensive.[15] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic, anise-flavoured spice, brown or green in colour when fresh, slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. For cooking, green seeds are optimal.[7] The leaves are delicately flavoured and similar in shape to those of dill. The bulb is a crisp vegetable that can be sautéed, stewed, braised, grilled, or eaten raw. Young tender leaves are used for garnishes, as a salad, to add flavor to salads, to flavor sauces to be served with puddings, and also in soups and fish sauce.[16]

Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise, which are similar in taste and appearance, though smaller. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpastes. The seeds are used in cookery and sweet desserts.[16]

Many cultures in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. It is one of the most important spices in Kashmiri Pandit and Gujarati cooking.[17] It is an essential ingredient of the Assamese/Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron[18] and in Chinese five-spice powders. In many parts of India and Pakistan, roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas, an after-meal digestive and breath freshener.

Fennel leaves are used in some parts of India as leafy green vegetables either by themselves or mixed with other vegetables, cooked to be served and consumed as part of a meal. In Syria and Lebanon, the young leaves are used to make a special kind of egg omelette (along with onions and flour) called ijjeh.

Many egg, fish, and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads, often tossed with chicory and avocado, or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. It may be blanched or marinated, or cooked in risotto.

Fennel seeds are the primary flavor component in Italian sausage.

In Spain, the stems of the fennel plant are used in the preparation of pickled eggplants, berenjenas de Almagro.

An herbal tea or tisane can be made from fennel.[19]

Medicinal uses[edit]

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) essential oil in clear glass vial

Fennel contains anethole, which can explain some of its medical effects; it, or its polymers, act as phytoestrogens.[20]

The essence of fennel can be used as a safe and effective herbal drug for primary dysmenorrhea, but could have lower potency than mefenamic acid at the current study level.[21][non-primary source needed]

Intestinal tract[edit]

Fennel is widely employed as a carminative, both in humans and in veterinary medicine (e.g., dogs), to treat flatulence by encouraging the expulsion of intestinal gas.[medical citation needed] Anethole is responsible for the carminative action.[citation needed]

The 1931 herbal medicine guide Mrs. Grieve's Herbal states:[22]

On account of its aromatic and carminative properties, fennel fruit is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their tendency to griping and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup, these waters constitute the domestic 'gripe water', used to correct the flatulence of infants. Volatile oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. Fennel tea, formerly also employed as a carminative, is made by pouring half a pint of boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[22]

Fennel can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic (formerly thought to be due to digestive upset), but long-term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche.[23]

Eyes[edit]

In the Indian subcontinent, fennel seeds are also eaten raw, sometimes with some sweetener, as they are said to improve eyesight. Ancient Romans regarded fennel as the herb of sight.[24][unreliable source?] Root extracts were often used in tonics to clear cloudy eyes. Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.[25][non-primary source needed]

Blood and urine[edit]

Fennel may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.[26][27]

Breastmilk[edit]

Historical anecdotes suggest that fennel is a galactagogue,[28] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. This use, although not supported by direct evidence, is sometimes justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens, which promote growth of breast tissue.[29] However, normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. Two case reports resulted in illness for the newborn child: Both mothers had been drinking more than 2 liters daily of an herbal tea mixture reportedly containing licorice, fennel, anise, and Galega officinalis. The authors attributed the maternal and infant symptoms to anethole, which is found in both fennel and anise; however, the anethole levels were not measured in breastmilk, nor were the teas tested for their content. Symptoms resolved in the children after their mothers discontinued the teas.[30]

Other uses[edit]

Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas, and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.[31]

Chemistry[edit]

Foeniculoside I is a stilbenoid. It is a glucoside of the stilbene trimer cis-miyabenol C. It can be found in Foeniculi fructus (fruit of F. vulgare).[32]

Production[edit]

India is the leader in production of anise, badian (star anise), fennel and coriander.

Top ten anise, badian, fennel & coriander producers — 11 June 2008
Country Production (Tonnes per year) Footnote
 India 110,000 F
 Mexico 49,688 F
 China 40,000 F
 Iran 30,000 F
 Bulgaria 28,100 F
 Syria 27,700
 Morocco 23,000 F
 Egypt 22,000 F
 Canada 11,000 F
 Afghanistan 10,000 F
 World 415,027 A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division


Similar species[edit]

Many species in the family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae are superficially similar to fennel, and some, such as poison hemlock, are toxic. It is therefore unwise, and potentially extremely dangerous, to use any part of any of these plants as an herb or vegetable unless it can be positively identified as being edible.

Dill, coriander and caraway are similar-looking herbs but shorter-growing than fennel, reaching only 40–60 cm (16–24 in). Dill has thread-like, feathery leaves and yellow flowers; coriander and caraway have white flowers and finely divided leaves (though not as fine as dill or fennel) and are also shorter-lived (being annual or biennial plants). The superficial similarity in appearance between these may have led to a sharing of names and etymology, as in the case of meridian fennel, a term for caraway.[33]

Cicely, or sweet cicely, is sometimes grown as an herb; like fennel, it contains anethole and therefore has a similar aroma but is lower-growing (up to 2 m (6.6 ft)) and has large umbels of white flowers and leaves that are fern-like rather than threadlike.

Giant fennel (Ferula communis) is a large, coarse plant, with a pungent aroma, which grows wild in the Mediterranean region and is only occasionally grown in gardens elsewhere. Other species of the genus Ferula are also commonly called giant fennel, but they are not culinary herbs.

In North America, fennel may be found growing in the same habitat and alongside natives osha (Ligusticum porteri) and Lomatium species, useful medicinal relatives in the parsley family.

Most Lomatium species have yellow flowers like fennel, but some[which?] are white flowered and resemble poison hemlock. Lomatium is an important historical food plant of Native Americans known as 'biscuit root'. Most Lomatium spp. have finely divided, hairlike leaves; their roots have a delicate rice-like odor, unlike the musty odor of hemlock. Lomatium species tend to prefer dry rocky soils devoid of organic material.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Old English Plant Names". Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  2. ^ Liddell and Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, s.v. νάρθηξ.
  3. ^ μάραθον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  4. ^ Μαραθών in Liddell and Scott.
  5. ^ On tablets MY Ge 602, MY Ge 606 + fr., MY Ge 605 + 607 + frr. + 60Sa + 605b. "The Linear B word ma-ra-tu-wo". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of Ancient languages.  Raymoure, K.A. "ma-ra-tu-wo". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean.  "MY 602 Ge (57)".  "MY 606 Ge + fr. (57)".  "MY 605 Ge + 607 + fr. [+] 60Sa + fr. [+] 605b + frr. (57)". DĀMOS: Database of Mycenaean at Oslo. University of Oslo. 
  6. ^ Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
  7. ^ a b Katzer's Spice Pages: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)
  8. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Foeniculum vulgare
  9. ^ "Green Fennel Seeds". Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
  10. ^ Rombauer, Irma (1997). Joy of Cooking. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc. p. 375. ISBN 0-684-81870-1. 
  11. ^ Ziedrich, Linda. The Joy of Pickling. 
  12. ^ RHS Plant Finder 2008–2009, Dorling Kindersley, 2008, p280
  13. ^ Common Fennel
  14. ^ http://www.manicaretti.com/product-catalog/savory-pantry/fennel-pollen[dead link]
  15. ^ "GlobalChefs "Fennel Pollen"". Retrieved 2008-12-01. [dead link]
  16. ^ a b M. G. Kains (1912). American Agriculturist, ed. Culinary Herbs: Their Cultivation Harvesting Curing and Uses (English). Orange Judd Company. 
  17. ^ Tarla Dalal. Fennel seeds, Indian recipes using. http://www.tarladalal.com/glossary-fennel-seeds-410i . Accessed Oct 2012
  18. ^ Deepika Sahu (10 May 2012). "The power of five seeds". The Times Of India. 
  19. ^ http://www.poundoftea.com/benefits-of-fennel-tea/
  20. ^ Albert-Puleo M (December 1980). "Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents". J. Ethnopharmacology 2 (4): 337–44. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(80)81015-4. PMID 6999244. 
  21. ^ "Comparison of fennel and mefenamic acid for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.". Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  22. ^ a b M. Grieve, 1931. A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-Lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs & Trees with their Modern Scientific Uses. Harcourt, Brace & Company
  23. ^ Türkyilmaz Z, Karabulut R, Sönmez K, Can Başaklar A (November 2008). "A striking and frequent cause of premature thelarche in children: Foeniculum vulgare". J. Pediatr. Surg. 43 (11): 2109–11. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.07.027. PMID 18970951. 
  24. ^ "Is Fennel Seed Good for the Digestive System?". LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
  25. ^ Agarwal R, Gupta SK, Agrawal SS, Srivastava S, Saxena R (2008). "Oculohypotensive effects of foeniculum vulgare in experimental models of glaucoma". Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 52 (1): 77–83. PMID 18831355. 
  26. ^ Wright CI, Van-Buren L, Kroner CI, Koning MM (October 2007). "Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence". J Ethnopharmacol 114 (1): 1–31. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.07.023. PMID 17804183. 
  27. ^ El Bardai S, Lyoussi B, Wibo M, Morel N (May 2001). "Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat". Clin. Exp. Hypertens. 23 (4): 329–43. doi:10.1081/CEH-100102671. PMID 11349824. 
  28. ^ John K. Crellin, Jane Philpott, A. L. Tommie Bass (1989). A Reference Guide to Medicinal Plants: Herbal Medicine Past and Present. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-1019-8.  pages 207-208
  29. ^ Anne P. Mark (2000). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Breastfeeding. Alpha Books. ISBN 0-02-863948-0.  page 142
  30. ^ Rosti L, Nardini A, Bettinelli ME, Rosti D (June 1994). "Toxic effects of a herbal tea mixture in two newborns". Acta Paediatr. 83 (6): 683. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1994.tb13115.x. PMID 7919774. 
  31. ^ botanical.com - A Modern Herbal | Fennel
  32. ^ Four new glycosides of stilbene trimer from Foeniculi fructus (fruit of Foeniculum vulgare MILLER). Ono M, Ito Y, Kinjo J, Yahara S, Nohara T and Niiho Y, Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin, 1995, vol. 43, no 5, pages 868-871 INIST:3610745
  33. ^ Anise Seed Substitute: Caraway Seed

External links[edit]