|Preferred IUPAC name
(1aR,1bS,4aR,7aS,7bS,8R,9R,9aS)-4a,7b-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1,1,6,8-tetramethyl-5-oxo-1,1a,1b,4,4a,5,7a,7b,8,9-decahydro-9aH-cyclopropa[3,4]benzo[1,2-e]azulene-9,9a-diyl 9a-acetate 9-tetradecanoate
TPA, PMA, Phorbol myristate acetate,
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||616.83 g/mol|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
what is ?)(
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), also commonly known as tetradecanoylphorbol acetate, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is a diester of phorbol. It is a potent tumor promoter often employed in biomedical research to activate the signal transduction enzyme protein kinase C (PKC). The effects of TPA on PKC result from its similarity to one of the natural activators of classic PKC isoforms, diacylglycerol. TPA is a small molecule drug.
In ROS biology, superoxide was identified as the major reactive oxygen species induced by TPA/PMA but not by ionomycin in mouse macrophages. Thus, TPA/PMA has been routinely used as an inducer for endogenous superoxide production.
TPA has a specific use in cancer diagnostics as a B-cell specific mitogen in cytogenetic testing. To view the chromosomes, a cytogenetic test requires dividing cells. TPA is used to stimulate division of B-cells during cytogenetic diagnosis of B-cell cancers such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
TPA induces KSHV reactivation in PEL cell cultures via stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. The pathway involves the activation of the early-immediate viral protein RTA that contributes to the activation of the lytic cycle.
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- Blumberg (1988). "Protein kinase C as the receptor for the phorbol ester tumor promoters: sixth Rhoads memorial award lecture". Cancer Research. 48 (1): 1–8. PMID 3275491.
- Niedel (1983). "Phorbol Diester Receptor Copurifies with Protein Kinase C". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 80 (1): 36–40. Bibcode:1983PNAS...80...36N. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.1.36. PMC 393304. PMID 6296873.
- Swindle (2002). "A Comparison of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Rat Peritoneal Macrophages and Mast Cells Using the Highly Sensitive Real-Time Chemiluminescent Probe Pholasin: Inhibition of Antigen-Induced Mast Cell Degranulation by Macrophage-Derived Hydrogen Peroxide" (PDF). The Journal of Immunology. 169 (10): 5866–5873. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.169.10.5866. PMID 12421969. S2CID 21433304.
- Huang (2014). "Megakaryocytic Differentiation of K562 Cells Induced by PMA Reduced the Activity of Respiratory Chain Complex IV". PLoS ONE. 9 (5): e96246. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...996246H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096246. PMC 4015910. PMID 24817082.
- The AGT cytogenetics laboratory manual. 3rd ed. Barch, Margaret J., Knutsen, Turid., Spurbeck, Jack L., eds. 1997. Lippincott-Raven.
- "Flow Cytometry Intracellular Staining Guide". eBioscience, Inc. Retrieved 2011-09-25.
- Cohen, Adina; Brodie, Chaya; Sarid, Ronit (April 2006). "An essential role of ERK signalling in TPA-induced reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus". The Journal of General Virology. 87 (Pt 4): 795–802. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.321.5484. doi:10.1099/vir.0.81619-0. PMID 16528027.
- Schaar, Dale; Goodell, Lauri; Aisner, Joseph; Cui, Xiao Xing; Han, Zheng Tao; Chang, Richard; Martin, John; Grospe, Stephanie; Dudek, Liesel; Riley, Joan; Manago, Jacqueline; Lin, Yong; Rubin, Eric H.; Conney, Allan; Strair, Roger K. (June 2006). "A phase I clinical trial of 12- O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for patients with relapsed/refractory malignancies". Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. 57 (6): 789–795. doi:10.1007/s00280-005-0125-1. ISSN 1432-0843. PMID 16231182. S2CID 33377618.