1572 in science
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- November 9 – A supernova, now designated as SN 1572, is first observed in the constellation Cassiopeia by Cornelius Gemma. Tycho Brahe, who notes it two days later, will use it to challenge the prevailing view that stars do not change.
- Girolamo Mercuriale of Forlì (Italy) writes the work De morbis cutaneis ("On the diseases of the skin"), the first scientific tract on dermatology.
- Johann Bayer, German uranographer (died 1625)
- Charles Bouvard, French herbalist (died 1658)
- Cornelius Drebbel, Dutch inventor (died 1634)
- Bartholomew Gosnold, English explorer and privateer (died 1607)
- August 26 (St. Bartholomew's Day massacre) – Petrus Ramus, French logician (born 1515)
- December 12 – Loredana Marcello, Venetian dogaressa and botanist.